Gamificación aplicada a la Educación para la Salud de adolescentes con el diagnóstico de Diabetes Mellitus tipo 1

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Publication date
2019
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18-10-2019
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Abstract
Background: What happens in the first years of life affects the health and development of adolescents, and so on throughout life. Public Health investments through the Promotion of Health at this stage will be crucial for lifestyles and habits later on. Diabetes Mellitus type 1 is a chronic disease that usually begins in childhood and need training throughout to respond to changes in all life stages. From the salutogenic model we try to promote what makes people, families and communities increase control over their health and improve it, these are the assets for health. The National Health System through the Promotion of Health and Health Education, present in different programs and strategies, try to fulfill this objective. Community interventions from Primary Care Centers and Health Promotion Schools initiate educational interventions within the Portfolio of Standardized Services of Primary Care of the Community of Madrid. These interventions need to be adapted to the target population, adolescents in this study. Gamification has proven to be effective in promoting health for people of this age with very varied goals. Objectives: this research proposes four consecutive phases: a) The objectives in the first phase: to describe the community where the study population lives from the perspective of Assets for Health; to know and understand the factors that contribute to the predisposition, facilitation and reinforcement, which can affect the behaviors, attitudes and environmental factors. b) The objective in the second phase: to develop an EPS program whose methodology is gamification. c) The objective of the third phase: to verify through the criterion of experts, that the educational intervention "Agent +014" meets the objectives proposed in the previous phase. d) The objective of the fourth phase: to verify by the criterion of a sample of the study population, that the educational intervention "Agent +014" meets the objectives proposed in phase two. Methodology: mixed study. In the first phase, a cross-qualitative quantitative study was carried out that combines the description and analysis of results organized on the basis of the diagnoses of the Precede-Procede model. In the second phase, a Health Education program was developed based on the results of the previous phase. In the third phase, a qualitative and descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out using a SWOT questionnaire and a sample of experts. In the last phase, quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional work was started through semi-structured interviews and a sample of adolescents. Results: the adolescents in the study have a good quality of life, healthy habits and a family support system that promotes their independence in care; they live in a city that has different policies and strategies to be considered a Healthy City; they have access to different health resources; the assets for the health of the emotional sphere are those that need more reinforcement, the family assets are positive for the promotion of their health, within the community assets it was stated that the teachers need support. After this collection of information, an educational intervention was created that includes gamification as a strategy, "Agent +014". This has been well received by health and education experts. The design and objectives considered this type of intervention appropriate; In addition, gamification provides multiple benefits. The place where the start-up would be the most appropriate is in the Health Promotion School. It was also reviewed by a sample of adolescents, who agreed with the previous results. Conclusions: according to the results obtained, it is concluded that “Agente +014” is a strategy that enriches Health Education. Besides, the Precede-Procede model is an effective model for the Health Promotion of adolescents diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Keywords: adolescence, health education, Precede-Procede model, gamification, type 1 diabetes mellitus and health assets.
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