Valor pronóstico del estudio del perfil de miRNAs en la Neumonía Adquirida en la Comunidad

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BACKGROUND: Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality that is often misdiagnosed and inadequately treated. The assessment of the severity of CAP is a fundamental tool for the care of these patients, allowing them to be stratified according to risk, and, provide the most appropriate treatment regimen accordingly. Two of the most important complications in these patients are the development of sepsis, as well as hypoxemia. One of the biomarkers with the greatest potential today are microRNAs, which are small RNA fragments that regulate gene expression, and are associated with the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. OBJECTIVES: To study the expression profile of a series of circulating microRNAs and link it with the development of future complications derived from CAP. METHOD: The expression profile of plasma microRNAs was analyzed in a total of 223 patients diagnosed with CAP, whose samples were obtained during the first 24 hours after admission. For this analysis, RT-qPCR was used. RESULTS: MicroRNAs are potential biomarkers and a promising tool to improve the prognosis of CAP. The expression of miR-122 is reduced in patients with sepsis, while that of miR-574 is increased. The expression of miR-150 is reduced in patients with hypoxemia, while the overexpression of miR-297 seems key to the development of lung inflammation, as well as hypoxemia. Finally, the expression of miR-223, as well as miR-15a and miR-486 are reduced in patients who, according to the PSI severity scale, would correspond to higher risk groups. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of the plasma microRNA profile in patients with CAP has made it possible to establish a genetic signature that can be very useful if transferred to clinical practice, regarding the prognosis of these patients.
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