Sequential extraction of almond hull biomass with pulsed electric fields (PEF) and supercritical CO2 for the recovery of lipids, carbohydrates and antioxidants

Abstract
This work reports the first example of combined sequential extraction by pulsed electric fields (PEF) (3 kV/cm, 100 kJ/kg, 2 Hz, 100 ms) and supercritical (SC) fluid extraction (SFE) (15 MPa, 25 mL/min, 50ºC, 60 min) with CO2 (SC-CO2) for the valorisation of almond hull (AH) biomass. PEF+SFE boosted the efficiency of the protocol up to 77% for total antioxidant capacity and 20% in terms of polyphenols recovery compared to the traditional soaking. Triple-TOF-LC-MS-MS analysis provided the phenolic profiles for the PEF and SC-CO2 extracts, observing significant differences in the polyphenol profile according to the technology applied. Additionally, NMR analysis detected the presence of the carbohydrate soluble (mainly glucose, fructose and sucrose) and lipidic fractions, both selectively extracted by PEF or SC-CO2, respectively. Finally, the post-extraction residual solid biomass was characterized by several techniques such as TGA, FT-IR and SEM. For the latter, the formation of surface pores after PEF and a high fibre compaction after SFE was observed. On the other hand, DTG curves allowed to firmly propose concurrent valorisation routes for this solid, in agreement with a zero-waste approach.
Description
Bibliographic reference
Salgado-Ramos, Manuel Martí Quijal, Francisco Juan Huertas-Alonso, Alberto J. Sánchez-Verdú, M. Prado Cravotto, Giancarlo Moreno, Andrés Barba Orellana, Francisco José 2023 Sequential extraction of almond hull biomass with pulsed electric fields (PEF) and supercritical CO2 for the recovery of lipids, carbohydrates and antioxidants Food and Bioproducts Processing 139 216 226