Novel Immune Features of the Systemic Inflammation Associated with Primary Hypercholesterolemia: Changes in Cytokine/Chemokine Profile, Increased Platelet and Leukocyte Activation

Abstract
Primary hypercholesterolemia (PH) is associated with a low grade systemic inflammation that is likely the main driver of premature atherosclerosis. Accordingly, we characterized the immune cell behaviour in PH and its potential consequences. Whole blood from 22 PH patients and 21 age-matched controls was analysed by flow cytometry to determine the percentage of leukocyte immunophenotypes, activation, and platelet-leukocyte aggregates. Plasma markers were determined by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). The adhesion of platelet-leukocyte aggregates to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)-stimulated arterial endothelium was investigated using the dynamic model of the parallel-plate flow chamber. PH patients presented greater percentage of Mon 3 monocytes, Th2 and Th17 lymphocytes, activated platelets, and leukocytes than controls. The higher percentages of circulating platelet-neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte aggregates in patients caused increased platelet-leukocyte adhesion to dysfunctional arterial endothelium. Circulating CXCL8, CCL2, CX3CL1, and IL-6 levels positively correlated with key lipid features of PH, whereas negative correlations were found for IL-4 and IL-10. We provide the first evidence that increased platelet and leukocyte activation leads to elevated platelet-leukocyte aggregates in PH and augmented arterial leukocyte adhesiveness, a key event in atherogenesis. Accordingly, modulation of immune system behavior might be a powerful target in the control of further cardiovascular disease in PH.
Description
Bibliographic reference
Collado Sánchez, Aida Marques, Patrice Domingo, Elena Perelló Camacho, Eva González Navarro, Herminia Martínez Hervás, Sergio Real Collado, José Tomás Piqueras Ruiz, Laura Ascaso Gimilio, Juan Francisco Sanz Ferrando, María Jesús 2019 Novel Immune Features of the Systemic Inflammation Associated with Primary Hypercholesterolemia: Changes in Cytokine/Chemokine Profile, Increased Platelet and Leukocyte Activation Journal Of Clinical Medicine 8 1 18