Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry. 2016. Vol. 8, no. 3

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    Prevalence of root caries among elders living in residential homes of Bengaluru city, India
    (2016) Kumara-Raja, Balasubramanian; Radha, G.
    Background: Among the various oral ailments which have been observed in elderly, root caries is a significant one. Tooth loss is chief oral health-related negative variable to the quality of life in elderly and root caries is the major cause of tooth loss in them. It has been reported about a third of older population bears most of the root caries burden, so the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of root caries among older individuals residing in residential homes of Bengaluru city India. Material and Methods: Elderly individuals aged 60 and above, residing in residential homes of Bangalore city, were included in the study. The study participants filled a questionnaire regarding their demographic details and oral health habits. Root surface caries was recorded according to criteria described by Banting et al. and root caries was expressed in terms of the root caries index (RCI). The statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of root caries was 46.4%. The root caries index was 15%. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) observed across gender, marital status, diet, socio-economic status, medication, method of cleaning and frequency of cleaning and were identified as significant predictors of root caries. Conclusions: The prevalence of root caries among institutionalized older people was high. Oral health policies and preventive measures are needed focusing on the special needs of this neglected and socioeconomically deprived population to improve their quality of life.
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    Incidence of oral health in paediatric patients with disabilities: sensory disorders and autism spectrum disorder. Systematic review II
    (2016) Bartolomé Villar, Begoña; Mourelle Martínez, Mª Rosa; Diéguez Pérez, Montserrat; Nova García, Joaquín de
    Introduction: We are currently witnessing an increase in the number of disabled patients, creating the need for knowledge of each of the pathologies and of the different oral and dental conditions they present, in order to achieve efficient management and treatment. Objectives: To analyse the existing scientific literature on the oral conditions of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with sensory deficits (SD), in comparison with the healthy child population. Material and Method: The bibliographic search was carried out in Pubmed/Medline, Scopus and Cochrane Library and included articles taking a sample of children between 0 and 18 years of age diagnosed with the abovementioned disorders and including at least one of the following oral hygiene conditions - oral hygiene, dental caries, malocclusion, oral habits, dental trauma, and gingival-periodontal status - comparing them with a healthy population. Results: A total of 10 articles were obtained for autism spectrum disorder and six for sensory deficits. Conclusions: Of all the variables studied, only the state of oral, gingival and/or periodontal hygiene can be considered worse in patients with ASD and SD, although we believe a larger number of research studies is needed to corroborate these results.
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    Traumatic arteriovenous fistula as consequence of TMJ arthroscopic surgery: a case report
    (2016) Cariati, Paolo; Marín Fernández, A.B.; Monsalve Iglesias, Fernando; Román-Ramos, María; García Medina, Blas
    The ocurrence of a traumatic arteriovenous fistula after arthroscopic surgery of TMJ represents an extremely rare event. Specifically, this uncommon complication has been described only in a few case reports. In this light, the most frequent symptoms showed by this disease are thrills, bruits, pulsatile tinnitus, and an expansible vascular mass. Importantly, the severity of these symptoms is also dependent on the vessels involved. With regard to the management, is important to note that the vessel ligation with surgery as well as vessel emolization with endovascular procedures have been shown to be effective in the treatment of these cases. In view of that, the present study describes a case of superficial temporal arteriovenous fistula that arose as a postoperative complication of a bilateral arthroscopic eminoplasty of TMJ. The aim of the present report is to characterize this rare syndrome with the goal of proposing suitable treatments.
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    Oral health in children with physical (Cerebral Palsy) and intellectual (Down Syndrome) disabilities: systematic review I
    (2016) Diéguez Pérez, Montserrat; Nova García, Joaquín de; Mourelle Martínez, Mª Rosa; Bartolomé Villar, Begoña
    Introduction: Traditionally, patients with physical and/or intellectual disabilities presented greater oral pathology, owing to their condition and to other external factors. Improved social and health conditions make it necessary to update knowledge on their oral and dental health. Material and Methods: For this purpose, a bibliographic review was done regarding the state of oral health of children with these two types of disability, in comparison with a control group. Some of the guidelines of the PRISMA statement were taken into account. The ranking of the articles found is based on the modified Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. The final number of articles evaluated was 14. Parameters such as dental caries, oral hygiene, gingival health, dental traumas, malocclusion and habits were considered. Results: There is no consensus among authors regarding dental caries, oral hygiene and gingival health. The different results obtained are due in part to the fact that the methodologies used were not the same. However, it has been noted that, when studying other parameters and regardless of the methodology employed, the results obtained are similar. Conclusions: Children with physical and intellectual disabilities constitute a group that needs early and regular dental care in order to prevent and limit the severity of the pathologies observed.
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    Pathogenesis and clinicohistopathological caractheristics of melanoacanthoma: a systematic review
    (2016) Cantudo Sanagustín, Elena; Gutiérrez Corrales, Aida; Vigo-Martínez, Manuel; Serrera Figallo, María Angeles; Torres Lagares, Daniel; Gutiérrez Pérez, José Luis
    Introduction: The melanoacanthoma is a rare benign pigmented tumor, characterized by a fast radial growth and clinical behavior similar to melanoma. Color changes in oral mucosa and dermis are consequence of increased melanocyte activity as response to an irritant factor. There is a vast phenotypic variety. It is difficult to distinguish between a benign pigmented lesion and a melanoma at its early stage. Due to its clinical relevance is crucial to diagnose possible malignancy of the lesions. Objectives: The aim of this article is to conduct a systematic review of all published articles, as well as update and evaluate etiologic factors and clinicopathological features. Material and Methods: We carried out a search in the Medline database (PubMed) using the key words “oral melanoacanthoma” AND “oral melanoacanthosis” AND “oral melanoepithelioma”. Inclusion criteria were all published articles since its discovery. Demographic data, histological features and immunohistochemical findings were extracted from the full articles. Results: A total of 56 articles were analysed. 114 injuries drawn from these articles were studied, a total of 115 injuries with our contribution case. The 74.78% of authors claim a reactive pathogenesis. The average age of lesión appearance is 34.79 years, with an age range of 5-87 years. There is a predominance of the female sex in solitary phenotype 3: 2 and a ratio of women to men 5: 3 if it is multifocal phenotype. Bilateral phenotype is slight higher in women of 2: 1. Conclusions: Histopathological analysis of the lesión is vital to diagnose malignancy. Therefore, any heterogeneous, pigmented lesion with irregular edges, raised surface, fast growth and abrupt appearance should be biopsied. More emphasis on the potential irritants should also be put to improve the quality of life of our patients and to reduce morbidity of melanoacanthoma, as well as, several similar clinical behavior disease.
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    Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength of three flowable compomers on enamel of primary teeth: an in-vitro study
    (2016) Güngör, Özge-Erken; Erdogan, Yıldırım; Yalçın-Güngör, Ahmet; Alkis, Hüseyin
    Background: The aim of the present study was to determine Shear bond strength (SBS) of different flowable compomers on the enamel surface of primary teeth. The null hypothesis to be tested was that none of the flowable compomer would differ significantly from the other two with respect to SBS. As a result, the tested materials that have the easiest application on child patient is preferred. Material and Methods: Sixty newly extracted non carious primary molars were selected. The buccal surface was cleaned and polished to obtain a flat enamel surface. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups of 20 teeth each, based on the flowable compomers applied, as follows: group I: Dyract Flow® (Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany); group II: Twinky Star Flow® (Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany); and group III: R&D Series Nova Compomer Flow® (Imicryl, Konya, Turkey). Results: SBS in group II (6.78± 0.45 MPa) were significantly lower than groups I and III (8.30 ± 0.29 and 8.43 ± 0.66 MPa, respectively) ( P <.001). No significant difference was found between groups I and III ( P <.05). Conclusions: Significant differences existed between the SBS of the groups. Therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected. Flowable compomers can provide adequate SBS with self-etching system at restoration of primary teeth. Thus, successful restorations in pediatric patients can be done in a practical way .
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    MTA apical barrier: in vitro study of the use of ultrasonic vibration
    (2016) Escribano-Escriva, Begoña; Micó Muñoz, Pedro; Manzano, Alberto; Giner-Lluesma, Teresa; Collado Castellanos, Nicolás; Muwaquet-Rodriguez, Susana
    Background: The apexification is the first alternative treatment on a permanent tooth when, after a tooth trauma and in the presence of immature apex trauma, pulp necrosis occurs. Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as apical sealing material of choice in these cases, but has a degree of filtration as all other materials. The objective of this study was to analyze the seal ability of MTA on the duct walls in immature teeth unirradicular apexes, using indirect vibration. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 45 teeth divided into 3 groups: Group A or control group in which no vibration for placing the MTA was used, Group B and C or groups where indirect vibration analysis was used. All samples were immersed in methylene blue to assess filtration. After performing longitudinal cuts millimetric measuring were made of the degree of filtration, divided into 3 degrees (2mm each grade filtration). Results: Results obtained confirm our hypothesis, obtaining lesser degree of filtration those groups in which indirect vibration (Groups B and C) was performed. It was shown that the degree of filtration is closely linked to the degree of adaptation. Conclusions: MTA vibration offers better results in its adaptation to the canal walls, significantly reducing the degree of filtration.
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    Six-month healing success rates after endodontic treatment using the novel GentleWave System: the pure prospective multi-center clinical study
    (2016) Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Le, Khang T.; Woo, Stacey M.; Rassoulian, Shahriar A.; McLachlan, Kimberly; Abbassi, Farah; Garland, Randy W
    Background: This prospective multi-center (PURE) clinical study evaluated healing rates for molars after root canal treatment employing the GentleWave® System (Sonendo, Inc., Laguna Hills, CA). Material and Methods: Eighty-nine patients met the inclusion criteria and consented for this clinical study after referral for a root canal treatment. All enrolled patients were treated with the GentleWave System. Five endodontists performed the clinical procedures and follow-up evaluations. Pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative data were collected from the consented patients. Each patient was evaluated for clinical signs and symptoms. Two trained, blinded, and independent evaluators scored the subject tooth radiographs for apical periodontitis using the periapical index (PAI). The teeth classified as healing or healed were considered as a success and composed of a cumulative success rate of healing. Statistical analysis was performed by using the Fisher’s exact test, Pearson correlation, and multivariate logistic regression analyses of the pre-operative prognostic factors at 0.05 significance level. Results: Seventy-seven patients were evaluated at six months with a follow-up rate of 86.5%. The cumulative success rate of healing was 97.4%. Eleven prognostic factors were identified using bivariate analyses. Using logistic analyses, the two prognostic significant variables that were directly correlated to healing were the pre-operative presence of periapical index (p value=0.016), and single treatment visits (p value=0.024). Conclusions: In this six-month PURE clinical study, the cumulative success rate of healing was 97.4% when patients were treated with the GentleWave® System.
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    Biomechanical evaluation of oversized drilling technique on primary implant stability measured by insertion torque and resonance frequency analysis
    (2016) Santamaría Arrieta, Gorka; Brizuela Velasco, Aritza; Fernández, Felipe J.; Chávarri Prado, David; Chento-Valiente, Yelko; Solaberrieta, Eneko; Diéguez Pereira, Markel; Vega Álvarez, José Antonio; Yurrebaso-Asua, Jaime
    Background: This study evaluated the influence of implant site preparation depth on primary stability measured by insertion torque and resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Material and Methods: Thirty-two implant sites were prepared in eight veal rib blocks. Sixteen sites were prepared using the conventional drilling sequence recommended by the manufacturer to a working depth of 10mm. The remaining 16 sites were prepared using an oversize drilling technique (overpreparation) to a working depth of 12mm. Bone density was determined using cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT). The implants were placed and primary stability was measured by two methods: insertion torque (Ncm), and RFA (implant stability quotient [ISQ]). Results: The highest torque values were achieved by the conventional drilling technique (10mm). The ANOVA test confirmed that there was a significant correlation between torque and drilling depth (p<0.05). However, no statistically significant differences were obtained between ISQ values at 10 or 12 mm drilling depths (p>0.05) at either measurement direction (cortical and medullar). No statistical relation between torque and ISQ values was identified, or between bone density and primary stability (p>0.05). Conclusions: Vertical overpreparation of the implant bed will obtain lower insertion torque values, but does not produce statistically significant differences in ISQ values.
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    Expression of claudin-5, claudin-7 and occludin in oral squamous cell carcinoma and their clinico-pathological significance
    (2016) Phattarataratip, Ekarat; Sappayatosok, Kraisorn
    Background: Claudin and occludin are the important tight junctions protein in human. The downregulation or upregulation of claudins and occludin might have a role in cancer development. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of claudin-5, claudin-7 and occludin in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and their relationships with the prognostically-related clinico-pathologic features. Material and Methods: Standard indirect immunohistochemical technique using anti-claudin-5, anti-claudin-7 and anti-occludin was performed in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 66 OSCC samples from Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University. The positive cases were divided into 2 groups, the low expression group (cases with less than 50% of positive cancer cells) and the high expression group for statistical analysis. Categorical analysis of the clinico-pathologic parameters together with univariate analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log rank test were performed. Results: There were 22 male and 23 female patients enrolled in this study, with a mean age of 65.82+12.10 years. The claudin-5 immunoreactivity was observed in 26.6% of cases. The positive immunoreactivity of claudin-7 is more noted (93.3%). Only 4 cases showed occludin immunoreactivity (8.9%) and all of them show positivity less than 25% of cancer cells. Only loss of claudin-7 expression was associated with the high pathologic grade, advanced TNM staging, large tumor size, the presence of microscopic perineural, vascular invasions and regional lymph node involvement. There is a tendency towards the association of the higher claudin-7 expression and a longer survival time (P=0.012). Conclusions: The results showed expression of claudin-5, claudin-7 and low expression of occludin in OSCC. Only claudin-7 expression showed impact on clinic-pathological parameter of OSCC.
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    Repeated exposure of acidic beverages on esthetic restorative materials: an in-vitro surface microhardness study
    (2016) Xavier, Arun M.; Sunny, Steffy M.; Rai, Kavita; Hegde, Amitha M.
    Background: A manifold increase in the consumption of aerated beverages has witnessed a twin increase in tooth wear and raised demand for esthetic restorative materials. This study aimed to evaluate the surface microhardness changes of esthetic restorative materials following treatment with aerated beverages in an in-vitro situation. Material and Methods: The initial surface microhardness of the restorative materials GC Fuji II LC, GC Fuji IX, Nano Glass ionomer, Resin and Nano composite was recorded. These materials were studied under 3 groups that included those exposed to the acidic beverages daily, weekly once in a month and those that had no exposures at all. The final surface microhardness of the materials was recorded following experimentation and was subjected to statistical comparisons. Results: The restorative materials were compared for their surface microhardness changes following respective treatments using the T-test and One-way ANOVA analysis. Inter-comparisons between the groups showed statistical significance (p<.05), when treated with both the beverages. The five restorative materials revealed surface microhardness loss; the maximum reduction noticed with the Nano glass ionomer cement tested (p<.0005). Conclusions: The surface microhardness of restorative materials markedly reduced upon repeated exposures with acidic beverages; the product with phosphoric acid producing the maximum surface microhardness loss.
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    Physical evaluation of a new pulp capping material developed from portland cement
    (2016) Negm, Ahmed; Hassanien, Ehab; Abu-Seida, Ashraf; Nagy, Mohamed
    Background: This study examined the effects of addition of 10% and 25% by weight calcium hydroxide on the physicochemical properties of Portland cement associated with 20% bismuth oxide in order to develop a new pulp capping material. Material and Methods: The solubility, pH value, setting time, compressive strength, and push out bond strength of modified Portland were evaluated and compared to those of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement containing 20% bismuth oxide. Results: The statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA and Duncan’s post-hoc test. The results show that the strength properties and push out bond strength of Portland cement were adversely affected by addition of calcium hydroxide especially with a ratio of 25 wt%, however, the setting time and pH were not affected. MTA showed a statistically significant lower setting time than other cements (P≤0.001). Portland cement with bismuth oxide and Port Cal I showed a statistically significant higher Push out Bond strength than MTA and Port Cal II (P=0.001). Conclusions: Taking the setting time, push out bond strength and pH value into account, addition of 10 wt% calcium hydroxide to Portland cement associated with 20% bismuth oxide produces a new pulp capping material with acceptable physical and adhesive properties. Further studies are recommended to test this cement biologically as a new pulp capping material.
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    Effect of composite/amalgam thickness on fracture resistance of maxillary premolar teeth, restored with combined amalgam-composite restorations
    (2016) Firouzmandi, Maryam; Doozandeh, Maryam; Jowkar, Zahra; Abbasi, Sanaz
    Background: Combined amalgam-composite restorations have been used through many years to benefit from the advantages of both dental amalgam and composite resin. Two variations have been mentioned for this technique, this study investigated the fracture resistance of maxillary premolar teeth with extended mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities, restored with the two variations of combined amalgam-composite restorations. Material and Methods: Sixty intact extracted premolar teeth were randomly divided into 6 groups (G1-G6) of 10 teeth. G1; consisted of intact teeth and G2; consisted of teeth with MOD preparations were assigned as the positive and negative control groups respectively. Other experimental groups after MOD preparations were as follows: G3, amalgam restoration; G4, composite restoration; G5 combined amalgam-composite restoration with amalgam placement only on 1mm of the gingival floor of the proximal boxes; G6, combined amalgam-composite restoration with amalgam placement to the height of contact area of the proximal surface of the tooth. Fracture strength of the specimens was measured and the data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The level of significance was P˂0.05. Fracture mode of the specimens was also recorded. Results: G1 had the highest value of fracture resistance (1736.90 N). G2 and G3 had the lowest fracture resistance (775.70 N and 874.70 N, respectively). The difference between G 4, 5 and 6 was not statistically significant. However, G4, G5 and G6 showed significantly higher resistance to fracture compared to G2 and G3. Fracture modes were favorable in all of the study groups except in G6. Conclusions: Fracture resistance of the premolars restored with the two variations of combined amalgam-composite restoration was similar to that achieved with composite restoration alone and more than that of amalgam restoration alone. It can be concluded that the thickness of amalgam in combined amalgam-composite restorations did not affect fracture resistance of the teeth.
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    Evaluation of shear bond strength of a composite resin to white mineral trioxide aggregate with three different bonding systemsa: an in vitro analysis
    (2016) Yelamali, Sandhya; Patil, Anand C.
    Background: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a biomaterial that has been investigated for endodontic applications. With the increased use of MTA in pulp capping, pulpotomy, perforation repair, apexification and obturation, the material that would be placed over MTA as a final restoration is an important matter. As composite resins are one of the most widely used final restorative materials, this study was conducted to evaluate the shear bond strength of a composite resin to white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) using three different bonding systems namely the two-step etch and rinse adhesive, the self-etching primer and the All-in-one system. Material and Methods: Forty five specimens of white MTA (Angelus) were prepared and randomly divided into three groups of 15 specimens each depending on the bonding systems used respectively. In Group A, a Two-step etch and rinse adhesive or ‘total-etch adhesive’, Adper Single Bond 2 (3M/ESPE) and Filtek Z350 (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN) were placed over WMTA. In group B, a Two-step self-etching primer system, Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray, Medical Inc) and Filtek Z350 were used. In Group C, an All-in-one system, G Bond (GC corporation, Tokyo, Japan) and Filtek Z350 were used. The shear bond strength was measured for all the specimens. The data obtained was subjected to One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe’s post hoc test. Results: The results suggested that the Two-step etch and rinse adhesive when used to bond a composite resin to white MTA gave better bond strength values and the All-in-one exhibited the least bond strength values. Conclusions: The placement of composite used with a Two-step etch and rinse adhesive over WMTA as a final restoration may be appropriate.
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    Fluoride release and uptake abilities of different fissure sealants
    (2016) Poggio, Claudio; Andenna, Gianluigi; Ceci, Matteo; Beltrami, Riccardo; Colombo, Marco; Cucca, Lucia
    Background: The long-term capability of resin sealants and glass ionomer cements to release fluoride is associated to a reduction in pit and fissure caries. The regular use of fluoride varnishes/toothpastes can result in the absorption of fluoride into the sealant. The objective of the present study was to assess the fluoride release/uptake capacities of different fissure sealants. Material and Methods: Three different fissure sealants (Fuji Triage/GC, Fissurit FX/Voco and Grandio Seal/Voco) were examined. Ten discs of each material were prepared. Each disc was incubated with distilled water and then the solution analyzed for diluted for fluoride concentration, using a combination of fluoride electrode (OrionGP 1 S/N 13824, Orion Research Inc, Boston, MA, USA) connected to an expandable ion analyzer (Orion 720A, Orion Research Inc, Boston, MA, USA). Standard curves between 1 and 100 ppm F- were used to calibrate the electrode. Cumulative fluoride release was measured on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 21, 35 and 49, then two different fluoride varnishes/ pastes (Profluorid Varnish/Voco, MI Paste Plus/GC), were applied to the sealants tested, and fluoride release (after reuptake) was measured on days 56, 70 and 84. Results: Kruskal Wallis test confirmed significant differences in fluoride release between Fuji Triage/GC and Fissurit FX/Voco and Grandio Seal/Voco from day 1 ( P < 0.001). The application of fluoride varnish Profluorid Varnish enhanced the fluoride release for all sealants ( P < 0.05). MI Paste Plus enhanced the fluoride release for all sealants except for Fuji Triage/GC ( P > 0.05). Conclusions: The GIC-based sealant (Fuji Triage/GC) released significantly more fluoride than the resin sealants tested. The exposure to the fluoridated varnish (Profluorid Varnish) significantly recharged the sealants tested more than the CPP-ACPF toothpaste (MI Paste Plus).
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    Evaluation of the Diode laser (810nm,980nm) on dentin tubule diameter following internal bleaching
    (2016) Kiomarsi, Nazanin; Salim, Soheil; Sarraf, Pegah; KharaziFard, Mohammad J.; Chiniforush, Nasim
    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diode laser irradiation and bleaching materials on the dentinal tubule diameter after laser bleaching. Material and Methods: The dentin discs of 40 extracted third molar were used in this experiment. Each disc surface was divided into two halves by grooving. Half of samples were laser bleached at different wavelengths with two different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. Other half of each disc with no laser bleaching remained as a negative control. Dentin discs were assigned randomly into four groups (n=10) with following hydrogen peroxide and diode laser wavelength specifications; Group 1 (30% - 810 nm), group 2 (30% - 980 nm), group 3 (46% - 810 nm) and group 4 (46% - 980 nm). All specimens were sent for scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis in order to measure tubular diameter in laser treated and control halves. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (p<0.05). Results: A significant reduction in dentin tubule diameter was observed in groups 1, 2 and 4. There was no significant difference between groups 1 and 2 and between groups 3 and 4 after bleaching. Conclusions: The SEM results showed that diode laser was able to reduce dentin tubule diameter and its effect on dentin was dependent on chemical action of bleaching material.
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    CD166 expression in dentigerous cyst, keratocystic odontogenic tumor and ameloblastoma
    (2016) Andisheh Tadbir, Azadeh; Gorgizadeh, Ali
    Background: CD166 is a glycoprotein of an immunoglobulin super family of adhesion molecules that has been associated with aggressive characteristics and high recurrence rate of tumors. Different odontogenic lesions exhibit considerable histological variation and different clinical behavior. In an attempt to clarify the mechanisms underlying this different behavior, the present study investigates the immunohistochemical expression of CD166 in these lesions. Material and Methods: In this study 69 formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue blocks of odontogenic lesion consist of 15 unicystic ameloblastoma (UA), 17 solid ameloblastoma (SA), 18 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT), and 19 dentigerous cysts (DC) were reviewed by immunohistochemistry for CD166 staining. Results: In this study, CD166 immune staining was evident in all specimen groups except dentigerous cyst. In positive cases, protein localization was cytoplasmic and/or membranous. CD166 expression was seen in76.5% (13) of SA, 73.5% (11) of UA, and 66.7% (12) of KCOTs. Statistical analysis showed that CD166 expression levels were significantly higher in ameloblastoma (SA and UA) and KCOTs than dentigerous cyst (P<0.001), but there was no statistically significant difference between CD166 expression in the other groups (P>0.05). Conclusions: This data demonstrates that overexpression of CD166 may have a role in the pathogenesis of ameloblastoma and KCOT.
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    Effect of root canal rinsing protocol on dentin bond strength of two resin cements using three different method of test
    (2016) Khoroushi, Maryam; Sheikhi, Mohammadreza; Khalilian-Gourtani, Amirhossein; Soleimani, Bahram
    Background: Different studies have used different tests to evaluate bond strength of resin cements to root dentin. In this in vitro study, three different tests were used to evaluate the bond strength of two resin cements to root dentin using two root dentin irrigation protocols. Material and Methods: Ninety-six intact single-rooted teeth were selected for this study. Forty-eight teeth, with a root length of 15mm, were randomly divided into two groups and irrigated with normal saline or 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solutions during root canal preparation, respectively. For each 12 specimens from each group, fiber post #1 was bonded using an etch-and-rinse (Duo-Link) and a self-adhesive (BisCem) resin cement, respectively. After incubation, two specimens were prepared for the push-out test from the middle thirds of the roots. In another 24 teeth, after two 1.5-mm sections were prepared from the middle thirds of the prepared roots, sections of the post were bonded in two subgroups with each of the cements mentioned above and the samples were prepared for the pull-out test. For shear test, the crowns of 48 teeth were cut away, the dentin surfaces were prepared, the two irrigation solutions were used, and the resin cements were bonded. Data collected from the three tests were evaluated by ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey and Weibull tests (α=0.05). Results: There were significant differences in the mean bond strength values between the three bond strength tests (P<0.001). Rinsing protocol and cement type resulted in similar variations in the mean bond strength in all tests (P>0.05). Conclusions: Under the limitations of the present study, the method of the test used had an effect on the recorded bond strength between the resin cement and root dentin. Cement type and irrigation protocol resulted in similar variations with all the tests. Push-out and shear tests exhibited more coherent results.
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    Evaluation of primary stability of innovated orthodontic miniscrew system (STS): an ex-vivo study
    (2016) Seifi, Massoud; Matini, Negin-Sadat
    Background: Stability is determined as one of the requirements in use of Temporary Anchorage Devices (TAD) in orthodontics. Miniscrew has been a widely used Bone Anchor. Compared with mini-implant that necessitates osseointegration; mechanical retention is a determining factor for primary stability of miniscrew. Studies investigated various ways to increase primary stability. The aim of this study is to introduce a new configuration of miniscrew system which is believed to obtain more primary stability. Material and Methods: Freshly ovine mandibles were cut in blocks. Twenty-seven miniscrews (diameter 1.6 × 8 mm; G2, Dual Top Anchor System, Jeil Medical, Seoul, Korea) were inserted in the blocks and divided in 2 experimental groups: single miniscrew and the innovated design “Seifi Twin Screw (STS)”. Primary stability was evaluated by Periotest “M”® device. Results: Independent t-test showed a significant difference between 2 experimental groups in periotest evaluation (p< 0.05). STS demonstrated higher primary stability due to its mechanical configuration and design. Conclusions: The STS provides higher primary stability and was found to be effective in increased success rate of miniscrew systems from the standpoint of primary stability.
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    Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of three herbal irrigants in reducing intracanal E. faecalis populations: an in vitro study
    (2016) Gupta, Alpa; Wadhwa, Jitesh; Duhan, Jigyasa
    Background: The present study aimed to evaluate the intracanal bacterial reduction promoted by chemomechanical preparation using three different herbal extracts named Ocimum sanctum (OS), Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ), Syzygium aromaticum (SA) against Enterococcus faecalis. Material and Methods: Root canals from extracted teeth were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 for 7 days and then randomly distributed into 3 experimental groups of 10 teeth each: which includes conventional irrigation with OS, CZ and SA. The control groups included 5 teeth each consisting of NaOCl (positive control) and distilled water (negative control). Samples taken before and after chemomechanical procedures were cultured, and the colony-forming units (CFUs) were counted. Bacterial identification was performed using Polymerase chain reaction technique. The statistical analyses were performed with various tests. Results: Reduction in the intracanal bacterial populations was highly significant for all the experimental groups. CZ and SA showed 80 to 85% intracanal bacterial reduction while O. Sanctum revealed only 70 to 75 % reduction. NaOCl showed 96 to 100 % bacterial reduction on the other hand distilled water showed very minimal bacterial reduction i.e 10 to 16%. Conclusions: Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Syzygium aromaticum and Ocimum sanctum showed intracanal bacterial reduction against Enterococcus faecalis . The 3 experimental groups were less effective in terms of intracanal bacterial reduction as compare to NaOCl but more effective than distilled water.