Medicina oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal. Ed inglesa. 2013. Vol. 18, no. 4

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    Effect of pH on compressive strength of some modification of mineral trioxide aggregate
    (2013) Saghiri, Mohammad-Ali; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Asatourian, Armen; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Banava, Sepideh; Khezri-Boukani, Kaveh
    Objectives: Recently, it was shown that NanoMTA improved the setting time and promoted a better hydration process which prevents washout and the dislodgment of this novel biomaterial in comparison with WTMA. This study analyzed the compressive strength of ProRoot WMTA (Dentsply), a NanoWMTA (Kamal Asgar Research Center), and Bioaggregate (Innovative Bioceramix) after its exposure to a range of environmental pH conditions during hydration. Study Design: After mixing the cements under aseptic condition and based on the manufacturers' recommendations, the cements were condensed with moderate force using plugger into 9 × 6 mm split molds. Each type of cement was then randomly divided into three groups (n=10). Specimens were exposed to environments with pH values of 4.4, 7.4, or 10.4 for 3 days. Cement pellets were compressed by using an Instron testing machine. Values were recorded and compared. Data were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance and a post hoc Tukey's test. Results: After 3 days, the samples were solid when probed with an explorer before removing them from the molds. The greatest mean compressive strength 133.19±11.14 MPa was observed after exposure to a pH value of 10.4 for NanoWMTA. The values decreased to 111.41±8.26 MPa after exposure to a pH value of 4.4. Increasing of pH had a significant effect on the compressive strength of the groups (p<0.001). The mean compressive strength for the NanoWMTA was statistically higher than for ProRoot WMTA and Bioaggregate (p<0.001). Moreover, increasing of pH values had a significant effect on compressive strength of the experimental groups (p<0.001). Conclusion: The compressive strength of NanoWMTA was significantly higher than WMTA and Bioaggregate; the more acidic the environmental pH, the lower was the compressive strength.
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    All-trans retinoic acid restores gap junctional intercellular communication between oral cancer cells with upregulation of Cx32 and Cx43 expressions in vitro
    (2013) Wang, Juan; Dai, Yaohui; Huang, Yulei; Chen, Xiaohua; Wang, Hong; Hong, Yun; Xia, Yu-Juan; Cheng, Bin
    Objective: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been demonstrated to inhibit tumor growth by restoration of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) via upregulation of connexin (Cx) expression in some solid tumors. However, the relationship between ATRA and GJIC remains unclear in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ATRA on the GJIC function of OSCC. Study design: We measured the effects of ATRA on the viability and cell cycle distribution of SCC9 and Tca8113 OSCC cells. The GJIC function was observed using the scrape-loading dye transfer technique, and the mRNA and protein levels of Cx32 and Cx43 were detected by qRT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence assays. Results: ATRA inhibited the growth of OSCC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P <0.05) and caused cell cycle arrest. ATRA-treated cells showed a 2.69-fold and 2.06-fold enhancement of GJIC in SCC9 and Tca8113 cells, respectively (P <0.05). Moreover, ATRA induced upregulation of Cx32 and Cx43 at both the mRNA and protein levels in OSCC cells. Conclusion: Our results indicated that restoration of GJIC via enhanced Cx32 and Cx43 expression might serve as a novel mechanism for the anti-tumor effect of ATRA in OSCC.
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    Oral health care activities performed by caregivers for institutionalized elderly in Barcelona-Spain
    (2013) Cornejo, Marco; Lima, Kenio-Costa de; Pérez, Gloria; Borrell, Carme; Casals Peidró, Elías
    Objectives: To describe the frequency of brushing teeth and cleaning of dentures, performed by caregivers, for institutionalized elderly people. Methods: A cross-sectional study in a sample of 196 caregivers of 31 health centers in Barcelona. The dependent variables were frequency of dental brushing and frequency of cleaning of dentures of the elderly by caregivers. The independent variables were characteristics of caregivers and institutions. We performed bivariate and multivariate descriptive analyses. Robust Poisson regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with the dependent variables and to assess the strength of the association. Results: 83% of caregivers were women, 79% worked on more than one shift, 42% worked only out of necessity, 92% were trained to care for elderly persons, 67% were trained in oral hygiene care for the elderly, and 73% recognized the existence of institutional protocols on oral health among residents. The variables explaining the lower frequency of brushing teeth by caregivers for the elderly, adjusted for the workload, were: no training in the care of elderly persons (PRa 1.7 CI95%: 1.6-1.8), not fully agreeing with the importance of oral health care of the elderly (PRa 2.5 CI95%: 1.5-4.1) and not knowing of the existence of oral health protocols (PRa 1.8 CI95%: 1.2-2.6). The variables that explain the lower frequency of cleaning dentures, adjusted for the workload, were lack of training in elderly care (PRa 1.7 CI95%: 1.3-1.9) and not knowing of the existence of protocols (PRa 3.7 CI95%: 1.6-8.7). Conclusion: The majority of caregivers perform activities of oral health care for the elderly at least once per day. The frequency of this care depends mainly on whether caregivers are trained to perform these activities, the importance given to oral health, the workload of caregivers and the existence of institutional protocols on oral health of institutionalized elderly persons.
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    Effectiveness of 1% versus 0.2% chlorhexidine gels in reducing alveolar osteitis from mandibular third molar surgery: a randomiz, double-blind clinical trial
    (2013) Rodríguez Pérez, Manuel; Bravo Pérez, Manuel; Sánchez López, José Darío; Muñoz Soto, Esther; Romero Olid, María Nuria; Baca García, Pilar
    Purpose: Alveolar osteitis (AO) is the most common postoperative complication of dental extractions. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 1% versus 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel in reducing postoperative AO after surgical extraction of mandibular third molars, and assess the impact of treatment on the Oral HealthRelated Quality of Life (OHRQoL). Material and Methods: This clinical study was a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Eighty eight patients underwent surgical extraction of one retained mandibular third molar with the intra-alveolar application of 0.2% CHX gel. Afterwards, they were assigned to one of two groups: 1% CHX gel (n=42) or 0.2% CHX gel (n=46). The patients applied the gel twice a day to the wound for one week. All patients were evaluated for AO. Results: In the 0.2% CHX gel group, 13% of AO incidence was found, while in the 1% CHX gel group, AO incidence was 7%, a difference that was not statistically significant. Variables such as sensation of pain and inflammation at baseline and during one week, as well as OHRQoL of the patients at 24 hours and 7 days post-extraction, gave no statistically significant differences. Conclusions: There are no significant differences in AO after surgical extraction of mandibular third molars, when comparing applying 1% CHX gel twice a day for 7 days with 0.2% CHX gel.
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    Evaluation of socket healing in patients undergoing bisphosphonate therapy: experience of a single Institution
    (2013) kato, Gabriel Fukunaga; Lopes, Rodrigo Nascimento; Jaguar, Graziella Chagas; Silva, Ana Paula; Alves, Fabio Abreu
    Objective: To assess the clinical features of exodontias performed in cancer patients who have been receiving intravenous bisphosphonates (BPs). Study Design: This is a retrospective cohort study using a sample of 20 patients receiving BPs who had 62 teeth extracted. An univariate analysis was applied to calculate socket healing time (HT), comparing among exodontias performed according to cause, such as periodontal disease or caries, type of BP, and use of corticosteroid. In order to analyze the influence of each variable on HT, multiple statistical analyses were performed through logistic multiple regression. Results: From the 62 tooth extractions performed, 5 exodontias had evolved to 4 sites of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BOJ). Of another 57 exodontias without development of BOJ, HT was significantly better for tooth extraction performed in patients receiving corticosteroid (p= .01), for tooth extracted due to caries (p= .04), and for extractions under pamidronate (p= .03). Sockets after exodontias due to periodontal diseases had OR= 5.22 (95% CI 1.73-133.66, p=0.01) for delayed HT, exodontias performed under corticosteroid use had OR=0.04 (95% CI 0.01-0.40, p<0.001), and exodontias performed under zoledronate had OR=0.31 (95% CI 0.08- 1.25, p=0.10). Conclusions: Exodontias performed in patients under BP therapy had a low rate of BOJ occurrence. Zoledronate and periodontal diseases influence delayed socket healing. Adjuvant antibiotics could be relevant procedures aimed at reducing the risk of BOJ development.
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    Effect of gingival application of melatonin on alkaline and acid phosphatase, osteopontin and osteocalcin in patients with diabetes and periodontal disease
    (2013) Cutando Soriano, Antonio; López-Valverde Centeno, Antonio; Gómez de Diego, Rafael; Arias Santiago, Salvador; Vicente Jiménez, Joaquín de
    Objectives: To assess the effect of topical application of melatonin to the gingiva on salivary fluid concentrations of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and osteocalcin. Study Design: Cross-sectional study of 30 patients with diabetes and periodontal disease and 30 healthy subjects. Diabetic patients were treated with topical application of melatonin (1% orabase cream formula) once daily for 20 days and controls with a placebo formulation. Results: Before treatment with melatonin, diabetic patients showed significantly higher mean salivary levels of alkaline and acid phosphatase, osteopontin and osteocalcin than healthy subjects (P < 0.01). After treatment with melatonin, there was a statistically significant decrease of the gingival index (15.84± 10.3 vs 5.6 ± 5.1) and pocket depth (28.3 ± 19.5 vs 11.9 ± 9.0) (P < 0.001). Also, use of melatonin was associated with a significant reduction of the four biomarkers. Changes of salivary acid phosphatase and osteopontin correlated significantly with changes in the gingival index, whereas changes of alkaline phosphatase and osteopontin correlated significantly with changes in the pocket depth. Conclusions: Treatment with topical melatonin was associated with an improvement in the gingival index and pocket depth, a reduction in salivary concentrations of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin and osteocalcin.
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    Impaction of permanent mandibular second molar: a retrospective study
    (2013) Cassetta, Michele; Altieri, Federica; Di Mambro, Alfonso; Galluccio, Gabriella; Barbato, Ersilia
    Objective: To determine the prevalence of impacted mandibular second molar (MM2) and the association between MM2 impaction and crowding. The clinical significance of the angle between first and second mandibular molar and of the space between the first mandibular molar (MM1) and the anterior margin of mandibular ramus in MM2 impaction were also evaluated. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study , from the dental records of 2,945 caucasian young orthodontics patients, 40 subjects with MM2 impaction were included in a study group (SG) and compared with a control group (CG) of 200 subjects without MM2 impactions. The crowding, the angle of inclination of MM2, the distance between MM1 and mandibular ramus, the canine and molar relationships, and the lower centre line discrepancy were measured. For the statistical analysis , descriptive statistics and t-Student for independent sample groups were used. Results: The prevalence of impacted MM2 was 1.36%. The independent-Samples t-Test between SG and CG showed: the presence of crowding (P<=0.001), an higher angle values of MM2 inclination (P<=0.001) and a smaller distance between MM1 and the anterior margin of mandibular ramus (P<=0.001) in the SG. Conclusion: The impaction of MM2 is a relatively rare occurrence in orthodontic caucasian populations. The crowding, a higher angle values of MM2 inclination and a reduced distance between MM1 and the anterior margin of mandibular ramus, at the time of one third of MM2 root formation (T1), characterize MM2 impaction.
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    Treatment of cervicofacial actinomycosis: a report of 19 cases and review of literature
    (2013) Moghimi, Meshkan; Salentijn, Erik; Debets Ossenkop, Yvette; Karagozoglu, Kemal H.; Forouzanfar, Tymour
    Objectives: Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous infection caused by the Actinomyces genus. Orocervicofacial actinomycosis is the most common form of the disease, seen in up to 55% of cases. All forms of actinomycosis are treated with high doses of intravenous penicillin G over two to six weeks, followed by oral penicillin V. Large studies on cervicofacial actinomycosis are lacking. Therefore proper guidelines for treatment and treatment duration are difficult to establish. The aim of this study is to establish effective treatment and treatment duration for orocervicofacial actinomycosis. Study design: A Pubmed and Embase search was performed with the focus on treatment and treatment duration for cervicofacial actinomycosis. The hospital records of all patients presenting to our department with head and neck infection from January 2000 to December 2010 were reviewed, retrospectively. The following data were collected: age, gender, clinical presentation, aetiology, duration of symptoms, microbiological findings, treatment, and duration of treatment. The treatment and treatment duration is subsequently compared to the literature. Results: The literature search provided 12 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. All studies were retrospective in nature. Penicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid are the preferred antibiotic regimens found in the literature. Most of our patients were treated with a combination of penicillin G 12 million units/day and metronidazol 500 mg 3/ day, most commonly for a duration of 1 - 4 weeks, being shorter than the 3 - 52 weeks reported in the literature. Conclusion: When actinomycosis is suspected, our review has shown that a surgical approach in combination with intravenous penicillin and metronidazol until clinical improvement is seen, followed by oral antibiotics for 2 - 4 weeks is generally efficient.
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    Case series of 589 tooth extractions in patients under bisphosphonates therapy. Proposal of a clinical protocol supported by Nd: YAG low-level laser therapy
    (2013) Vescovi, Paolo; Meleti, Marco; Merigo, Elisabetta; Manfredi, Maddalena; Fornaini, Carlo; Guidotti, Rebecca; Nammour, Samir
    Objective: Trauma during dental surgery is a predisposing factor for bisphosphonates (BP)-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ). However, about 40% of cases of BRONJ are not related to dental invasive procedures, be ing probably associated to endodontic or periodontal infections. Extraction of non-treatable teeth is considered a reliable choice, to improve symptoms and to reduce the risk of BRONJ. Here we report our experience of tooth extractions in patients under oral or intravenous BP therapy. Study Design: Two-hundred and seventeen patients (38 males, 179 females; mean age 68.72 ± 11.26 years, range 30 to 83 years) under BP therapy received 589 tooth extractions at the Unit of Oral Medicine, Pathology and Laser-assisted Surgery of the University of Parma, Italy, between June 2006 and December 2010. Ninety five patients were under BP therapy for oncological disease (multiple myeloma (MM): 23; bone metastases (BM): 72) and 122 patients for non oncological diseases: 119 osteoporosis (OP), 2 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 1 Paget's disease (PD). The mean duration of BP was of 35 months. Antibiotic treatment was administered three days before and 2 weeks after tooth extractions. Patients were additionally treated with low level laser therapy (LLLT) through Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm - power 1.25 W; frequency 15 Hz; fibre diameter: 320 µm), 5 application of 1 minute each. Patients were evaluated 3 days and once a week for 2 months after the extractions and every time they received LLLT. Mean follow-up was 15 months (ranging from 4 to 31 months). Results: In a total of 589 extractions (285 mandibular, 304 maxillary) performed, a minimal bone exposure was observed in 5 cases, treated with Er:YAG laser vaporization and than healed. Conclusions: Our experience supports the hypothesis that the association of antibiotic treatment and LLLT can be effective in preventing ONJ after tooth extractions in patients under BPT.
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    Preventing root caries development under oral biofilm challenge in an artificial mouth
    (2013) Mei, May Lei; Chu, Chun Hung; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.
    Objectives: To study the preventive effects of chlorhexidine against root caries under oral biofilm in an artificial mouth. Study Design: Sixteen human tooth-root disks were inoculated with a salivary sample that was produced by mixing the unstimulated saliva of three adults who had no untreated caries. The disks were incubated in an artificial mouth fed with a 5% sucrose solution three times daily for one week. Eight disks received a twice daily rinse of 0.12% chlorhexidine (test group). The other eight disks were rinsed in distilled water (control). The biofilm was then studied with three techniques: colony forming unit (CFU) counting, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The changes in the chemical structure of the root surface were studied using Fourier transform infra-Red spectroscopy. Type-I collagen and proteoglycans on the root surface were quantified using immunocytochemical staining. Results: The log CFU for the test and control groups were 4.21 and 8.27, respectively (p<0.001). The CFU count of Streptococci and Lactobacilli were negligible. Both the SEM and the CLSM showed suppressed bacteria growth in the test group. The log [amide-I: HPO 4 2-] of the test and control groups were 1.11 and 1.93, respectively (p=0.02). The mean counts of sound type-I collagen in the test and control groups were 16.8/µm² and 13.0/µm², respectively (p<0.001), whereas the mean counts of intact proteoglycans were 5.6/µm² and 3.5/µm², respectively (P<0.001). Conclusions: Chlorhexidine suppressed the growth of selected cariogenic bacteria in oral biofilm on the root surface and thus protected tooth-root from cariogenic challenge.
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    Downregulation of KLF8 expression by shRNA induces inhibition of cell proliferation in CAL27 human oral cancer cells
    (2013) Bin, Zhang; Ke-Yi, Li; Wei-Feng, Zhang; Li-Cheng, Jiang; Xian-Bin, Liu; Chun-Peng, Xia; Dao-Ying, Yuan; Shu-Wei, Liu
    Objectives: KLF8 is a member of KLF transcription factors which play an important tolr in oncogenesis. It is barely expressed in normal human epithelial cells but highly overexpressed in several types of human cancer cell lines. In the present study, we investigate the role of KLF8 in oral cancer and the effects of KLF8 knockdown via lentivirus mediated siRNA infection in human adenosquamos carcinoma CAL 27 cells. Study Design: We developed a vector-based siRNA expression system that can induce RNAi in CAL 27 oral cancer cells. Downregulation of KLF8 was confirmed by evaluating GFP expressions, RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Finally, the effects of KLF8 downregulation were analyzed by MTT assay and colony formation assays. Results: The expression levels of KLF8 mRNA and proteins are reduced in CAL 27 cells that transfected with 21- nt siRNA against KLF8. Lentivirus-mediated silencing of KLF8 reduces cell proliferation and colonies number, thereby indicating the role of KLF8 in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Conclusions: These results strongly suggest that KLF8 is essential for growth of CAL 27 cancer cells. A better understanding of KLF8 function and processing may provide novel insights into the clinical therapy of oral cancer.
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    Evaluation of an oral health scale of infectious potential using a telematic survey of visual diagnosis
    (2013) Relvas, Marta; Limeres Posse, Jacobo; Tomás Carmona, Inmaculada; Cabral, Cristina; Velazco, Corsina; Diz Dios, Pedro
    Objective: To compare the results of a subjective estimation of oral health through review of a set of intraoral photographs with those of an objective oral health scale of infectious potential. Method : The pool of patients was made up of 100 adults. Using an infectious-potential scale based on dental and periodontal variables, we assigned 1 of the 4 grades of the scale (range, 0 to 3; 0 corresponds to an excellent oral health status and 3 to the poorest oral health status) to each subject. A total of 20 representative subjects were selected from the pool of patients, 5 subjects for each one of the grades of the scale, and a standardized photographic record was made. One thousand dentists practicing in Spain were sent the survey by e-mail and 174 completed forms were received. We then calculated the concordance of the oral health status indicated by the respondents after visualising the photographs on comparison with the results of the oral health scale of infectious potential; concordance was termed correct grade allocation (CGA). Results : The majority of respondents (69.1%) achieved a CGA in 8 to 12 cases and none achieved more than 15 CGAs. The poorest CGA rates were found with grades 1 and 2, with a mean of 1.74 ± 1.09 and 1.87 ± 1.18, respectively, out of a maximum of 5. The concordance in terms of CGA was high for grade 0 (70.5%), very low for grade 1 (10.8%), low for grade 2 (37.3%), and moderate for grade 3 (42.6%). Conclusion : In comparison with visual examination of the oral cavity, the use of objective scale that establishes a reliable diagnosis of oral health in terms of infectious potential was found to be advantageous.
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    Dental profile of a community of recovering drug addicts: biomedical aspects. Retrospective cohort study
    (2013) Mateos Moreno, María Victoria; Rio Highsmith, Jaime del; Rioboo García, Rafael; Solá Ruiz, María Fernanda; Celemín Viñuela, Alicia
    Objectives: to obtain a biomedical oral profile of a community of adult drug addicts in treatment by analysing their dental health, with a view to determining whether the state of their oral health could be attributed primarily to their lifestyle and the direct consequences of drug abuse on their overall condition, rather than to the effects of the drugs used. Experimental Design: the study was conducted under the terms of an agreement between the Complutense University of Madrid's (UCM) Odontology Faculty and the City of Madrid's Substance Abuse Institute. Seventy drug addicts and 34 control group subjects were examined. The study assessed oral hygiene habits, systemic pathology, type of drugs used and the duration of use, oral pathology, oral health indices, risk of caries based on saliva tests, oral candidiasis and periodontal microbiology. Results: statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were found between the test and control groups for practically all the variables analysed. In the drug users group, dental hygiene was wanting, systemic and oral pathology prevailed and the decayed/missing/filled teeth or surface (DMFT/S) indices denoted very poor buccodental health. The saliva tests showed a substantial risk of caries and candidiasis rates were high. By contrast, with a single exception, the microbiological studies detected no statistically significant difference between drug users and control groups periodontal flora. Conclusions: drug-dependent patients had poor oral health and a significant increase in oral pathology, essentially caries and periodontal disease. Their risk of caries was high and the presence of candidiasis was representative of their poor general and oral health. Drug users' poor buccodental condition was more closely related to lifestyle than to drug abuse itself.
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    Total antioxidant capacity of saliva and dental caries
    (2013) Ahmadi Motamayel, Fatemeh; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Hendi, Seyedeh Sareh; Kasraei, Shahin; Moghimbeigi, Abbas
    Objective: Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Saliva has many functions in the oral cavity and is the first line defense against dental caries. Oxidative stress can affect initiation and progression of many inflammatory and infectious diseases such as dental caries. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of saliva and dental caries. Study D esign: 100 healthy high school students (50 female and 50 male) with age range of 15 -17 years were randomly selected, divided to four groups. Unstimulated whole saliva specimens were collected at the morning. TAC of saliva was evaluated by spectrophotometric assay. Statistical comparisons were performed using Student's t-test, by SPSS 13. Results: The level of TAC was significantly higher in the saliva of caries active group relative to the caries free subjects. Statistical analysis for male and female groups showed a statistically significant reduction of TAC level in female group. Conclusion: TAC was higher in caries active group. Thus this result showed that total antioxidant capacity may influence in dental caries and activity can be measured by salivary factors and this may be helpful in preventive dentistry.
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    The cytotoxic evaluation of mineral trioxide aggregate and bioaggregate in the subcutaneous connective tissue of rats
    (2013) Batur, Yusuf Burak; Acar, Gözde; Yalcin, Yagmur; Dindar, Seckin; Sancakli, Hande; Erdemir, Ugur
    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxic effects of ProRoot MTA and DiaRoot BA, a bioceramic nanoparticulate cement, on subcutaneous rat tissue. Study D esign: Fifty Sprouge Dawley rats were used in this study. Polyethylene tubes filled with ProRoot MTA and DiaRoot BioAggregate, along with a control group of empty, were implanted into dorsal connective tissue of rats for 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days. After estimated time intervals the rats were sacrificed. The specimens were fixed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and then evaluated under a light microscope for inflammatory reactions and mineralization. Results: All groups evoked a severe to moderate chronic inflammatory reaction at 7 and 15 days, which decreased with time. Both the MTA and BioAggregate groups showed similar inflammatory reactions, except at 90 days when MTA showed statistically significant greater inflammation (p>0.05). The MTA group showed foreign body reaction at all times. Compared to BioAggregate, MTA showed significantly more foreign body reaction at 60 and 90 days (p<0.0001). After 30 days foreign body reaction of BioAggregate decreased significantly. Both MTA and BioAggregate groups showed similar necrosis at 7 and 15 days (p=0.094 and p=0.186 respectively). No necrosis was observed after 15 days. Similarly there was no fibrosis after 30 days for both MTA and BioAggregate groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: Since DiaRoot BioAggregate showed significantly better results than MTA, we can conclude that it is more biocompatible. However, further studies are required to confirm this result.
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    Nanostructural changes in dentine caused by endodontic irrigants
    (2013) Barón, Marta; Llena Puy, María Carmen; Forner Navarro, Leopoldo; Palomares Fort, María; González García, Cristina; Salmerón Sánchez, Manuel
    Objective: To study nanostructural dentinal changes produced by endodontic irrigants. Study Design: Experimental study. Nanoindentations were performed on peritubular (PD) and intertubular dentine (ID) with an atomic force microscopy. Stiffness and adhesion force were determined before and after application of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Normalized differences before and after treatment for stiffness and adhesion forces were calculated. A paired T-test was used to compare stiffnes and adhesion force before and after irrigants application. Results: After treatment with EDTA there was a 29.80% reduction in stiffness in ID and a 63.53% reduction in PD. Adhesion force was reduced by 21.22% and 8.21% respectively. After treatment with 5.25% NaOCI stiffness was reduced by 2.49% in ID and increased by 15.01% in PD. Adhesion force increased by 25.11% and 23.97% respectively. Conclusions: 17% EDTA reduced stiffness and adhesion force in ID and PD. Treatment with NaOCI at 5.25% had no significant effect on stiffness but did affect adhesion force in ID and PD.
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    Dental implants placed on bone subjected to vertical alveolar distraction show the same performance as those placed on primitive bone
    (2013) Pérez Sayáns, Mario; León Camacho, María De Los Ángeles; Somoza Martín, José Manuel; Fernández González, Beatriz; Blanes-Vázquez-Gundín, Silvia; Gándara Rey, José Manuel; García García, Abel
    Introduction: Vertical osteogenic alveolar distraction (VOAD) allows for the augmentation of the alveolar ridge for the placement of dental implants in atrophic alveolar ridges. The goal of this paper is to assess long-term peri- implant bone resorption in implants placed on bones subjected to VOAD, comparing it with a group of patients who had implants placed directly on the alveolar bone without previous bone regeneration. Material and Methods: We conducted a follow-up study on 32 patients who were divided into two groups: The Distraction Group (14 patients), and the Distraction-Free Group (18 patients), who received a total of 100 implants. Peri-implant bone loss was measured by means of panoramic X-rays, at the time of loading and one year later, and in 35 implants of each group after 3 years of functional loading. Results: The peri-implant bone resorption (PBR) average observed in the Distraction Group at the time of prosthetic placement is higher (0.50±0.09 mm) than in the Distraction-Free Group (0.25±0.06 mm), showing statistically significant results (p=0.047). PBR levels 1 year after loading were the same for both groups (0.66 mm). At 3 years, they were higher in the Distraction Group (1.03 ± 0.22 mm vs. 0.68 ± 0.08 mm).
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    Cyclin B1 overexpression in conventional oral squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma-A correlation with clinicopathological features
    (2013) Patil, Gururaj B.; Hallikeri, Kaveri S; Balappanavar, Aswini Y.; Hongal, Sudheer G.; Sanjaya, PR; Sagari, Sheetalkumar G.
    Background: Nuclear localization of cyclin B1 is an indicator for cells undergoing mitotic division, and the overexpression has shown promising results as a good prognostic predictor for patients of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Cyclin B1 overexpression among histological grades of conventional oral squamous cell carcinoma (COSCC), as well as comparison with verrucous carcinoma (VC) has been less investigated. Study Design: Immunohistochemical expression of cyclin B1 was compared with various clinicopathological features in 30 primary COSCC and 31 primary VC cases. Result: Cyclin B1 showed significant overexpression for some clinical features for both the variants of oral squamous cell carcinoma. In histopathological variants, statistical significance was observed among grades of COSCC, as well as COSCC and its grades with VC. The concomitant increase in cyclin B1 overexpression from VC to grades COSCC was observed. Conclusion: Our study findings draw attention to cyclin B1 overexpression is involved in early carcinogenesis, cell differentiation and tumor proliferation.
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    Use of cone-beam computed tomography to evaluate root and canal morphology of mandibular first and second molars in Turkish individuals
    (2013) Demirbuga, Sezer; Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Dinçer, Asiye Nur; Cayabatmaz, Muhammed; Zorba, Yahya Orçun
    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the root and canal morphology of mandibular first and second molars in a Turkish population by using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Study design: CBCT images of mandibular first (n = 823) and second molar (n = 925) teeth from 605 Turkish patients were analyzed. The root canal configurations were classified according to the method of Vertucci. Results: The majority of mandibular molars (95.8% of first molars, 85.4% of second molars) had two separate roots; however, three roots were identified in 2.06% of first molars and 3.45% of second molars. C-shaped canals occurred 0.85% of first molars and 4.1% of second molars. Three canals were found in 79.9% of first molars and 72.8% of second molars. Most distal roots had a simple type I configuration, whereas mesial roots had more complex canal systems, with more than one canal. The most common root morphology of first and second molars is the two rooted morphology with three canals. Both the mesial and distal roots showed wide variations in canal anatomy with type IV and type I canal configuration predominating in the mesial and distal roots, respectively. Conclusion: Vertucci type I and IV canal configurations were the most prevalent in the distal and mesial roots, respectively, of both the mandibular first and second permanent molar teeth.
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    The use of low level laser therapy in the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders: review of the literature
    (2013) Herranz Aparicio, Judit; Vázquez Delgado, Eduardo; Arnabat Domínguez, Josep; España Tost, Antonio Jesús; Gay Escoda, Cosme
    Introduction: The temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) have been identified as the most important cause of pain in the facial region. The low level laser therapy (LLLT) has demonstrated to have an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and biostimulating effects. The LLLT is a noninvasive, quick and safe, non-pharmaceutical intervention that may be beneficial for patients with TMDs. However the clinical efficiency of LLLT in the treatment of this kind of disorders is controversial. Objectives: Literature review in reference to the use of LLLT in the treatment of TMDs, considering the scientific evidence level of the published studies. Material and Methods: A MEDLINE and COCHRANE database search was made for articles. The keywords used were "temporomandibular disorders" and "low level laser therapy" or "phototherapy" and by means of the Boolean operator "AND". The search provided a bank of 35 articles, and 16 relevant articles were selected to this review. These articles were critically analyzed and classified according to their level of scientific evidence. This analysis produced 3 literature review articles and 13 are clinical trials. The SORT criteria (Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy) was used to classify the articles. Results: Only one article presented an evidence level 1, twelve presented an evidence level 2, and three presented an evidence level 3. According to the principle of evidence-based dentistry, currently there is a scientific evidence level B in favor of using LLLT for treatment of TMDs. Discussion and conclusions: Publications on the use of LLLT for treatment of TMDs are limited making difficult to compare the different studies due to the great variability of the studied variables and the selected laser parameters. The great majority of the studies concluded that the results should be taken with caution due to the methodological limitations.