Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry. 2015. Vol. 7, no. 4

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    Fluorescence-guided bone resection by using Visually Enhanced Lesion Scope in diffuse chronic sclerosingosteomyelitis of the mandible: clinical and pathological evaluation
    (2015) Yoshiga, Daigo; Sasaguri, Masaaki; Matsuo, Kou; Yoshida, Sei; Uehara, Masataka; Habu, Manabu; Haraguchi, Kazuya; Tanaka, Tatsurou; Morimoto, Yasuhiro; Yoshioka, Izumi; Tominaga, Kazuhiro
    Diffuse chronic sclerosingosteomyelitis (DCSO) is a refractory disease, becausethe etiology and pathogenesis remain poorly understood and to determine the border betweenunhealthy boneandhealthybone is difficult. However, progressive inflammation, clinical symptoms and a high recurrence rate of DCSO were the reasons for surgical treatment. We report a case of a 66-year old woman with DCSO of the right side of mandible who was treated with hemimandibulectomy and simultaneous reconstruction by vascularized free fibula flap. After preoperative administration of minocycline for 1 month, the bone fluorescence was successfully monitored by using a Visually Enhanced Lesion Scope (VELscope®). Intraoperatively, we could determine the resection boundaries. We investigated the clinical and histopathological findings. The fluorescence findings were well correlated with histopathological findings. Using a VELscope®was handy and useful to determine the border between DCSO lesion andhealthybone. The free fibula flap under the minocycline-derived bone fluorescence by using a VELscope®offered a good quality of mandibular bone and the successful management of an advanced and refractory DCSO.
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    Salivary gland choristoma in the buccinator muscle: a case report and literature review
    (2015) Sotorra Figuerola, Dídac; Almendros Marqués, Nieves; España Tost, Antonio Jesús; Valmaseda Castellón, E.; Gay Escoda, Cosme
    Salivary gland choristoma (SGCh) is defined as the presence of normal salivary tissue in an abnormal location. It is a rare entity in oral and maxillofacial region and its ethiology is unknown. The typical presentation of salivary gland heterotopia is an asymptomatic mass that may or may not produce saliva. Some examples of ectopic salivary tissue in the pituitary gland, in the lymph nodes, in the middle ear, in the neck, in the jaw, in the thyroid gland, in the mediastinum and in the rectum have been documented in literature. We report the case of a 61-year-old male presented with a bilateral tumorlike mass in the cheek. The mass was painless, of fibrous consistency and had size change with time. The histological diagnosis was salivary gland choristoma in the buccinator muscle. In this article, we will revise the characteristic of salivary gland heterotopias and we present a report case that has not been described in literature: a bilateral choristoma of salivary gland in the buccinator muscle, which should be included in the differential diagnosis of head and neck masses
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    Estimation of Pyruvic acid in serum and saliva among healthy and potentially malignant disorder subjects – a stepping stone for cancer screening?
    (2015) Bhat, Anithraj; Bhat, Manohara; Prasad, Kakarla; Trivedi, Dhiraj; Acharya, Swathi
    Background: According to Warburg’s effect, the rate of glycolysis increases in cancerous cells. This will increase overall levels of pyruvic acid. The present on-going study was conducted to estimate the levels of pyruvic acid in saliva and serum in normal, oral PMD subjects. Material and Methods: A total of 50 subjects in healthy, PMD of the oral cavity individuals were selected based on clinical and histological criteria. Collected saliva and serum samples were subjected to pyruvic acid level estimation using biochemical analysis. Results: Of the 50 participants 25 (13: Males; 12: Females) & 25 (16: Males; 9: Females) were PMD group. Independent samples t test showed statistically significant difference in serum & salivary pyruvic acid level in between 2 groups ( P < 0.001 respectively) Conclusions: Estimation of pyruvic acid showed sequential increase in the level in PMD group compared to healthy. Hence the study results open new direction in cancer screening.
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    Chronic neuropathic facial pain after intense pulsed light hair removal. Clinical features and pharmacological management
    (2015) Gay Escoda, Cosme; Párraga Manzol, Gabriela; Sánchez Torres, Alba; Moreno Arias, Gerardo A.
    Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) photodepilation is usually performed as a hair removal method. The treatment is recommended to be indicated by a physician, depending on each patient and on its characteristics. However, the use of laser devices by medical laypersons is frequent and it can suppose a risk of damage for the patients. Most side effects associated to IPL photodepilation are transient, minimal and disappear without sequelae. However, permanent side effects can occur. Some of the complications are laser related but many of them are caused by an operator error or mismanagement. In this work, we report a clinical case of a patient that developed a chronic neuropathic facial pain following IPL hair removal for unwanted hair in the upper lip. The specific diagnosis was painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy, reference 13.1.2.3 according to the International Headache Society (IHS).
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    Post endodontic Aspergillosis in an immunocompetent individual
    (2015) Urs, Aadithya-Basavaraj; Singh, Hanspal; Nunia, Kalpana; Mohanty, Sujata; Gupta, Shalini
    Non-invasive aspergillosis in immunocompetent individuals subsequent to post endodontic treatment can involve the maxillary antrum. An early and accurate diagnosis will aid in prompt and effective treatment. A 35 year old female patient reported with a painful nasomaxillary swelling. Previous records revealed the failure of the endodontic treatment of maxillary left second premolar which was subsequently extracted. Root piece was accidently left behind which resulted in a painful nasomaxillary swelling. The extraction socket was curetted and tissue was sent for histopathological examination, which revealed abundant septate fungal hyphae with numerous spores characteristic of Aspergillus . The patient showed marked improvement in the symptoms with systemic itraconazole at 3 months follow up and complete resolution occurred within 6 months. Inclusion of aspergilloma infections in the differential diagnosis is advocated when patients present with post-endodontic nasomaxillary swelling
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    Apixaban and oral implications
    (2015) López Galindo, Mónica Paula; Bagán Sebastián, José Vicente
    Background: Thrombotic disorders remain a leading cause of death in the Western world, and in this regard a number of anticoagulation treatment have been used, including heparins, fondaparinux, vitamin K antagonists (warfarin, acenocoumarol), and new oral anticoagulants such as apixaban. For years there has been great controversy regarding the use of anticoagulants in planning dental treatments that imply bleeding. The main concerns about using new oral anticoagulants in invasive dental procedures are bleeding due to the lack of an antidote, and the thrombotic risk of the disease for which anticoagulation was indicated in the first place. Material and Methods: A literature search was conducted through May 2014 using the keyword “apixaban” for publications in the ISI Web of Knowledge. The search was extended to other databases (PubMed, Scopus and the Cochrane Library). Results: Based on the results of the different studies, apixaban seems to be a good alternative to conventional anticoagulation and a reasonable treatment option, though its main and most common adverse effect is bleeding. Dose adjustment is needed in some patients, though regular laboratory monitoring is not required. The use of the drug in different patient populations will define its final indications and doses. Conclusions: Regarding the use of apixaban in the dental setting, there is a compelling need for further clinical studies in order to establish more evidence-based guidelines for patients requiring antithrombotic treatment
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    Cartridge syringe vs computer controlled local anesthetic delivery system: pain related behaviour over two sequential visits – a randomized controlled trial
    (2015) Thoppe Dhamodharan, Yogesh Kumar; Asokan, Sharath; John, Baby John; Pollachi Ramakrishnan, GeethaPriya; Ramachandran, Punithavathy; Vilvanathan, Praburajan
    Background: Local anesthetic injection is one of the most anxiety provoking procedure in dentistry. Knowledge about change in pain related behaviour during consecutive visits helps in and scheduling of treatment procedures and management of children in dental clinic. Aim: To compare the pain perception, behavioural response and the associated change in physiological parameters while receiving local anesthesia injection with cartridge syringe and computer controlled local anesthetic delivery system (CCLAD) over two consecutive visits. Material and Methods: In this randomized controlled cross over trial, 120 children aged 7 – 11 years were randomly divided into group A: receiving injections with CCLAD during first visit; group B: receiving injections with cartridge syringe during first visit. The physiological parameters (heart rate and blood pressure) were recorded before and during injection procedure. Objective evaluation of disruptive behaviour and subjective evaluation of pain perceived were done using Face Legs Activity Cry Consolability (FLACC) scale and modified facial image scale (FIS) respectively. Results: No statistical difference in pain response ( p = 0.164) and disruptive behaviour ( p = 0.120) between cartridge syringe and CCLAD injections were seen during the first visit although the latter showed lesser scores. However, during the second visit there were significant increase in pain response ( p = 0.004) and disruptive behaviour ( p = 0.006) in cartridge syringe group with an associated increase in heart rate. Conclusions: Injections with CCLAD produced lesser pain ratings and disruptive behaviour than cartridge syringe in children irrespective of order of visit
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    Evaluation of bond strength of orthodontic brackets without enamel etching
    (2015) Boruziniat, Alireza; Khazaei, Yegane; Motaghi, Shiva; Moghaddas, Mohmmadjavad
    Background: to compare the shear bond strength of brackets with and without enamel etching. Material and Methods: In this study, 60 sound premolars were randomly divided into four different groups: 1- TXE group: Enamel etching + Transbond XT adhesive + Transbond XT composite. 2- TXS group: Transbond plus self-etch adhesive + Transbond XT composite. 3- PQ1E group: Enamel etching + PQ1 adhesive + Transbond XT composite. 4- PQ1 group: PQ1 adhesive + Transbond XT composite. The shear bond strengths of brackets were evaluated using universal testing machine at cross head speed of 0.5 mm/ min. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) was also measured. One-way ANOVA, Tukey’s post hoc, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-Witney U test were used for data analysis. Results: There was a significant difference between etched and unetched groups respect to SBS and ARI ( P <0.05), however; no significant difference was observed between unetched group and self-etch adhesive group ( P > 0.05). The shear bond strength of PQ1 group was the least but in acceptable range and its ARI was less than other groups. Conclusions: PQ1 adhesive can be used for bracket bonding without enamel etching with adequate bond strength and minimal ARI.
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    Effects of acids used in the microabrasion technique: microhardness and confocal microscopy analysis
    (2015) Pini, Núbia Inocencya Pavesi; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; da Silva, Wander José; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Lovadino, José Roberto
    Background: This study evaluated the effects of the acids used in the microabrasion on enamel. Material and Methods: Seventy enamel/dentine blocks (25 mm 2 ) of bovine incisors were divided into 7 groups (n=10). Experimental groups were treated by active/passive application of 35% H 3 PO 4 (E1/E2) or 6.6% HCl (E3/ E4). Control groups were treated by microabrasion with H 3 PO 4 +pumice (C5), HCl+silica (C6), or no treatment (C7). The superficial (SMH) and cross-sectional (CSMH; depths of 10, 25, 50, and 75 μm) microhardness of enamel were analyzed. Morphology was evaluated by confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM). Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (Proc Mixed), Tukey, and Dunnet tests (α=5%). Results: Active application (E1 and E3) resulted in higher microhardness than passive application (E2 and E4), with no difference between acids. For most groups, the CSMH decreased as the depth increased. All experimental groups and negative controls (C5 and C6) showed significantly reduced CSMH values compared to the control. A significantly higher mean CSMH result was obtained with the active application of H 3 PO 4 (E1) compared to HCl (E3). Passive application did not result in CSMH differences between acids. CLSM revealed the conditioning pattern for each group. Conclusions: Although the acids displayed an erosive action, use of microabrasive mixture led to less damage to the enamel layers
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    Evaluation of the efficacy of low-level laser in improving the symptoms of burning mouth syndrome
    (2015) Arbabi-Kalati, Fateme; Bakhshani, Nour-Mohammad; Rasti, Maryam
    Background: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is common condition that affects menopause women, patients suffer from sever burning sensation. Up to now there is no definitive treatment for this disease. Present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser (LLL) in improving t he symptoms of burning mouth syndrome. Material and Methods: Twenty patients with BMS were enrolled in this study; they were divided in two groups randomly. In the laser group, in each patient, 10 areas on the oral mucosa were selected and underwent LLL irradiation at a wavelength of 630 nm, and a power of 30 mW for 10 seconds twice a week for 4 weeks. In the placebo group, silent/off laser therapy was carried out during the same period in the same areas. Burning sensation and quality of life were evaluated. Results: Burning sensation severity and quality of life in the two groups after intervention were different significant statistically, ( P = 0.004, P = 0.01 respectively) .Patients in laser group had better results. Conclusions: It can be concluded that low level laser might decrease the intensity of burning mouth syndrome
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    Effect of platform switching on the peri-implant bone: a finite element study
    (2015) Bouazza Juanes, Kheira; Martínez González, Amparo; Peiró, Germán; Ródenas, Juan José; López Mollá, María Victoria
    Background: There exists a relation between the presence and location of the micro-gap and the loss of peri-implant bone. Several authors have shown that the treatments based on the use of platform switching result in less peri-implant bone loss and an increased tissue stability. The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of the platform switching on the distribution of stresses on the peri-implant bone using the finite element method. Material and Methods: A realistic 3D full-mandible finite element model representing cortical bone and trabecular bone was used to study the distribution of the stress on the bone induced by an implant of diameter 4.1 mm. Two abutments were modelled. The first one, of diameter 4.1 mm, was used in the reference model to represent a conventional implant. The second one, of diameter 3.2 mm, was used to represent the implant with platform switching. Both models were subjected to axial and oblique masticatory loads. Results: The analyses showed that, although no relevant differences can be found for the trabecular bone, the use of platform switching reduces the maximum stress level in the cortical bone by almost 36% with axial loads and by 40% with oblique loads. Conclusions: The full 3D Finite Element model, that can be used to investigate the influence of other parameters (implant diameter, connection, ...) on the biomechanical behaviour of the implant, showed that this stress reduction can be a biomechanical reasons to explain why the platform switching seems to reduce or eliminate crestal bone resorption after the prosthetic restoration
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    Comparative characterization of a novel cad-cam polymer-infiltrated-ceramic-network.
    (2015) Albero, Alberto; Pascual Moscardó, Agustín; Camps Alemany, Isabel; Grau Benítez, María
    Background: The field of dental ceramics for CAD-CAM is enriched with a new innovative material composition having a porous three-dimensional structure of feldspathic ceramic infiltrated with acrylic resins.The aim of this study is to determine the mechanical properties of Polymer-Infiltrated-Ceramic-Network (PICN) and compare its performance with other ceramics and a nano-ceramic resin available for CAD-CAM systems. Material and Methods: In this study a total of five different materials for CAD-CAM were investigated. A polymer- infiltrated ceramic (Vita Enamic), a nano-ceramic resin (Lava Ultimate), a feldspathic ceramic (Mark II), a lithium disilicate ceramic (IPS-e max CAD) and finally a Leucite based ceramic (Empress - CAD). From CAD-CAM blocks, 120 bars (30 for each material cited above) were cut to measure the flexural strength with a three-point- bending test. Strain at failure, fracture stress and Weibull modulus was calculated. Vickers hardness of each material was also measured. Results: IPS-EMAX presents mechanical properties significantly better from the other materials studied. Its strain at failure, flexural strength and hardness exhibited significantly higher values in comparison with the others. VITA ENAMIC and LAVA ULTIMATE stand out as the next most resistant materials. Conclusions: The flexural strength, elastic modulus similar to a tooth as well as having less hardness than ceramics make PICN materials an option to consider as a restorative material
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    Salivary gland dysfunction markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients
    (2015) Aitken Saavedra, Juan; Rojas Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Maturana Ramírez, Andrea; Escobar Álvarez, Alejandro; Cortes Coloma, Andrea; Reyes Rojas, Montserrat; Viera Sapiain, Valentina; Villablanca Martínez, Claudia; Morales Bozo, Irene
    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease of the carbohydrate metabolism that, when not rigorously controlled, compromises systemic and organ integrity, thereby causing renal diseases, blindness, neuropathy, arteriosclerosis, infections, and glandular dysfunction, including the salivary glands. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the qualitative and quantitative parameters of salivary alteration, which are indicators of salivary gland dysfunction, and the level of metabolic control of type 2 diabetes patients. Material and Methods: A convenience sample of 74 voluntary patients with type 2 DM was selected, each of whom donated a sample of unstimulated saliva. Salivary parameters such as salivary flow rate, protein concentration, pH, and xerostomia were studied. Results: There is a positive relationship between the level of metabolic control measured with HbA1 and the protein concentration in saliva (Spearman rho = 0.329 and p = 0.004). The same assay showed an inverse correlation between HbA1 and pH (Spearman rho = -0.225 and p = 0.05). Conclusions: The protein concentration in saliva and, to a lesser extent, the pH may be useful as glandular dysfunction indicators in DM2 patients.
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    Comparison of the clinical effects of white brand toothbrushes versus Vitis Suave®
    (2015) Faus Damiá, Maria; Segarra Vidal, Marta; Lucas Alcahuz, Eduardo; López Roldán, Andrés; Gil Loscos, Francisco José; Alpiste Illueca, Francisco
    Background: There has been an increase in the use of white label manual toothbrushes and a greater increase in inquiries for discomfort of the gingiva and mucosa. Material and Methods: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial was made of four white brand toothbrushes versus a control brush (Vitis Suave®), with the recording of plaque index, bleeding upon probing, and gingival abrasions following utilization of the different brushes. Results: All the brushes except Deliplus® were equally effective in terms of plaque removal ( p <0.05). Vitis Suave® and Veckia® were the brushes associated to the greatest increase in minor abrasions ( p <0.01), while Veckia®, Carrefour® and Deluxe® significantly increased the number of medium intensity abrasions ( p <0.05). These brushes also increased the number of large abrasions, though statistical significance was not reached in this case. Conclusions: The white brand brushes proved effective in controlling bacterial plaque, but were associated to more intense soft tissue abrasion
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    Durability of solvent-free one-step self-etch adhesive under simulated intrapulpal pressure
    (2015) Nagi, Shaymaa M.
    Background: There are different solvents presented in simplified adhesives. Bond-1 SF has been developed, which contains neither water nor organic solvents, in order to eliminate technical issues in terms of evaporation of solvents and concerns for the durability of resin-dentin bond. Thus this study was conducted to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of solvent-free and ethanol-based one-step self-etch adhesives to dentin under simulated intrapulpal pressure (IPP). Material and Methods: Occlusal surfaces of human molars were prepared to expose mid-dentin depth. Bond-1SF Solvent-Free SE [SF] and Adper TM easy one [AE] adhesives were applied on dentin specimens. Resin composite build up was done in increments. Then specimens were stored under simulated IPP 20 mmHg, immersed in artificial saliva at 37 ºC for 24 hours (24h) and 6 months (6m). Specimens were sectioned into sticks of (1 mm²) to be tested for (μTBS) using a universal testing machine. Both fractured sections of each stick were inspected using a stereomicroscope at 40× magnification to determine the mode of failure. Data were statistically analyzed by Two- way ANOVA of Variance. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the mean μTBS of both [SF] and [AE] adhesives at both aging periods, 24h and 6m ( p < 0.1103) and ( p < 0.7148) respectively. Only for [AE] there was statistical significance for aging periods ( p < 0.0057*). The most represented mode of failure were adhesive failure at tooth side. Conclusions: Under simulated IPP solvent-free adhesive [SF] had comparable performance as ethanol-based adhesive [AE] when bonded to dentin substrate.
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    Role of serum interleukin-6 in deciding therapy for multidrug resistant oral lichen planus
    (2015) Goel, Sinny; Marwah, Akanksha; Kaushik, Smita; Garg, Vijay K.; Gupta, Sunita
    Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a T cell mediated immune response. T cells locally present in the involved tissues release cytokines like interleukin-6 (IL-6), which contributes to pathogenesis of OLP. Also IL-6 has been associated with multidrug resistance protein (MRP) expression by keratinocytes. Correspondingly, upregulation of MRP was found in OLP. We conducted this study to evaluate the effects of various drugs on serum IL-6 in OLP; and correlation of these effects with the nature of clinical response and resistance pattern seen in OLP lesions with various therapeutic modalities. Thus we evaluated the role of serum IL-6 in deciding therapy for multidrug resistant OLP. Material and Methods: Serum IL-6 was evaluated in 42 erosive OLP (EOLP) patients and 10 normal mucosa and 10 oral squamous cell carcinoma cases using ELISA technique. OLP patients were randomly divided into 3 groups of 14 patients each and were subjected to Pimecrolimus local application, oral Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) and Methotrexate (MTX) alongwith Pimecrolimus local application. IL-6 levels were evaluated before and after treatment. Results: Serum IL-6 levels were raised above 3pg/ml in 26.19% erosive OLP (EOLP) cases (mean- 3.72±8.14). EOLP (5%) cases with IL-6 levels above 5pg/ml were resistant in MTX group. However significant decrease in serum IL-6 corresponding with the clinical resolution was seen in MMF group. Conclusions: Significantly raised IL-6 levels in EOLP reflect the chronic inflammatory nature of the disease. As serum IL-6 levels significantly decreased in MMF group, correspondingly no resistance to treatment was noted. However with MTX there was no significant decrease in IL-6 and resistance to treatment was noted in some, especially plaque type lesions. Thus IL-6 can be a possible biomarker in deciding the best possible therapy for treatment resistant OLP.
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    Hemodynamic changes following injection of local anesthetics with different concentrations of epinephrine during simple tooth extraction: a prospective randomized clinical trial
    (2015) Abu-Mostafa, Nedal; Al Showaikhat, Fatimah; Al Shubbar, Fatimah; Al Zawad, Kawther; Al Banawi, Fatimah
    Background: Presence of epinephrine in local anesthetic cartridge increases the duration of local anesthesia (LA), decreases the risk of toxicity, and provides hemostasis. However, the unfavorable effects are increasing heart rate (HR) and raising blood pressure (BP). The aim was to evaluate hemodynamic changes in the BP, HR, and oxygen saturation (SpO2) of normal patients undergoing tooth extraction using LA with various epinephrine concentrations. Material and Methods: A prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 patients who were divided randomly into 3 parallel groups according to the LA received. Group 1: lidocaine 2% with epinephrine 1:80,000 (L80). Group 2: articaine 4% with epinephrine 1:100,000 (A100). Group 3: articaine 4% with epinephrine 1:200,000 (A200). Inclusion criteria: normal patients whose BP < 140/90. Exclusion criteria: hypertension, cardiovascular disease, hyperthyroidism, pregnancy, and allergy to LA. BP, HR, and (SpO2) were evaluated in 3 different time points: 3 minutes before LA, 3 minutes after LA, and 3 minutes after extraction. Results: Systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly increased after injection of L80 and continued after extraction to be significant than pre-injection. SBP significantly increased after injection of A100 then decreased after extraction. In the group of A200, SBP insignificantly decreased after injection then increased after extraction. The increasing of SBP between time point 1and 2 was significantly higher in G1 than G3 ( p =0.014). Diastolic blood pressure decreased after LA in the 3 groups; however it was significant only with L80, then increased after extraction for all. Conclusions: The changings of DBP, HR and SpO2 after anesthesia and extraction showed no significant difference among the three groups. However, A200 had significant lesser effect on SBP than L80 and the least effect on other parameters. Therefore, A200 is considered safer than L80 and A100 and is recommended for LA before teeth extraction in normal patient.
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    The staining effect of different mouthwashes containing nanoparticles on dental enamel.
    (2015) Eslami, Neda; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Rajabi, Omid; Zamani, Roya
    Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of several mouthwashes containing nanoparticles on discoloration of dental enamel, and compare the results with that of 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX). Material and Methods: Sixty intact premolars were randomly assigned to six groups. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the color of the teeth (T1) according to the CIELAB system. The specimens in groups 1 to 4 were then immersed in colloidal solutions containing nanoTiO2 (Group 1), nanoZnO (Group 2), nanoAg (Group 3) and nanoCuO (Group 4). In groups 5 and 6, a 0.2% CHX mouthwash and distilled water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. After 24 hours of immersion, color determination was repeated (T2). The third color assessment was accomplished after brushing (T3). The L, a, and b values were recorded and the color change (∆E) between different stages was calculated. Results: ANOVA revealed significant between-group differences in the color change between T1 and T2 stages, as well as between T1 and T3 time points ( p <0.05), whereas the color change between T2 and T3 was not signifi - cantly different among the study groups ( p =0.09). ∆ET1-T3 was significantly lower in the specimens immersed in distilled water or CHX as compared to the nanoparticle-containing mouthwashes ( p <0.05). The highest ∆E value pertained to the specimens immersed in nanoZnO-containing solution. The TiO2 nanoparticles caused the lowest staining among the tested nanoparticles. Conclusions: The mouthwashes containing nanoparticles produced comparable or even greater enamel discoloration compared to CHX. Brushing had little effect on removal of induced stains
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    Panoramic radiographic study of mental foramen in selected dravidians of south Indian population: a hospital based study
    (2015) Gupta, Vaibhav; Pitti, Parag; Sholapurkar, Amar
    Background: This study aimed at documenting information on appearance, size, horizontal and vertical locations of Mental Foramen (MF) in Panoramic Radiograph. We also analyzed the age and gender differences with radiographic appearance and location of MF. We evaluated these findings in our population and co-relate with results of previous studies. Material and Methods: 1662 panoramic radiographs were evaluated, of which 245 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Each radiograph was traced to record the horizontal and vertical locations. The size of MF was recorded using digital caliper and its appearance was determined by visual examination. Chi-square and t-test were employed. Results: The most common appearance of MF was continuous type and the tests showed significant difference with age and gender. The most frequent horizontal location of MF was “location c” with no statistical significant difference with age and gender. The MF was most commonly positioned mesially in relation to the apex of second premolar with no significant differences with gender. The vertical location of the foramen varied drastically with no statistical significant difference in both sides. The difference in dimensions on the left and right sides were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Determining the morphological appearance and positional variation of MF is important for isolation of mental nerves and vessels when administering local anesthesia and performing surgeries. We therefore stress the importance of accurate radiographic identification of MF and interpretation. Our research findings can be used as reference material by the dental practitioners of South India while performing clinical procedures that involve MF.
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    Pyogenic granuloma in relation to dental implants: clinical and histopathological findings
    (2015) Anitua Aldecoa, Eduardo; Piñas Caballero, Laura
    Background: The occurrence of pyogenic granuloma in association to dental implants is rare and only five cases have been reported in the literature. Material and Methods: Patients charts were analyzed to select patients who had been diagnosed for pyogenic granuloma and its association with dental implants had been evaluated. The clinical status of the dental implants and the prosthesis had also been assessed. Results: Clinical and histopathological diagnosis of pyogenic granuloma had been reached for soft mass growth in association with dental implants in 10 patients. Histological analysis of all samples was performed to obtain a firm diagnosis of finding against pyogenic granuloma lesions. Accumulation of dental plaque due to poor oral hygiene and improper design of the prosthesis had been related to the occurrence of pyogenic granuoloma. This lesion showed no predilection to specific surface type and had no significant association with mar ginal bone loss. Conclusions: Pyogenic granuloma should be included in the differential diagnosis of soft mass growth around dental implants.