ItemAproximació als contorns tonals del català central(1995) Prieto i Vives, PilarThe present study provides a preliminary description of a wide variety of pitch contours in Central Catalan, and shows that the phonological framework developed by Pierrehumbert (1980) and her colleagues successfully accounts for their relevant intonational distinctions. Compared to English, Central Catalan seems to make use of a wider inventory of pitch accents, namely, H*, L*, !L+H*, L*+H, H+L*, H+!, H*+L, and L+H*+H (a summary of the pitch accent plus boundary tone combinations is given at the end). As the model predicts, the relative alignment of the H and L levels with respect to the accented syllable triggers intonational oppositions in Catalan. For example, the distinction between an echo and a neutral pronunciation of a question like Què volia ahir en Joan? can be expressed with the use of H+L* vs. H*+L pitch accents respectively. ItemLa projecció sintaxi-fonologia en els clítics del català i de l'espanyol(1995) Harris, JamesThis article covers Spanish and Catalan clitic pronouns according to the fundamental theoretical principles of Distributed Morphology. The author postulates that the syntax-phonology mapping of clitics consists of two submappings, the first from syntax to morphology and the second from morphology to phonology. In this second mapping, the clitics may suffer the effect of various morphological rules, specifically, the structural operations of Impoverishment, Adjunction, Fusion and Fission. The author proves that the complex and quirky behaviour of clitics and clitic clusters in Spanish and Barceloní can be easily explained by taking into account that these four operations act on the clitics' syntactical terminals in a morphological component which is intermediate between phonology and syntax. ItemAnalogia i canvi morfològic : a propòsit de les formes verbals velaritzades(1995) Pérez Saldanya, ManuelAn important series of verbs of the second conjugation exists in Catalan, characterized by a velar obstruent between the radical and the inflectional affixes. This velar segment, which in modern Catalan acts as an extension of the radical, has a heterogeneous historical origin. In short, in certain cases it stems from the strengthening of the glide of the Latin strong perfects in -UI (where w > gw > g); in others, it is justified by the maintaining of the final consonant of the radical in certain forms of the present in verbs such as dico or stringere (DICO > dic, DICAM > diga ...); in others, finally, it is due to changes of a purely analogical nature. In order to explain the latter changes, the theoretical framework of Natural Morphology has been adopted, and the analogical processes are considered to be motivated by a set of principles of morphological naturalness or optimization. To be exact, the inflectional class stability principle, the system congruity principle, the uniformity and transparency principle, and the constructional iconicity principle. ItemCondicions prosòdiques i minimitat en el tipus reduplicat puput(1995) Cabré Monné, TeresaThe purpose of this paper is to give a description of one of the Catalan reduplication processes: the reduplication of one light syllable at the left edge of the word. This process exhibits some prosodic conditions in the output as well as in the input. The input must be one heavy syllable, and the output cannot exceed two syllables. Both are subject to Minimality: base words contain minimally one foot, reduplicative words contain maximally one foot. The reduplicative template is a light syllable, its segmental melody being mapped from the base. The description of this process provides evidence for a templatic approach within Prosodic Morphology. ItemAspectes formals de les preposicions en català(1995) Sancho Cremades, PelegríStudies on the prepositional category generally cover its syntactic and semantic aspects. Phonological aspects are usually reflected in a peripheral way. In this article we propose to study some of the phonic features of Catalan prepositions from the point of view of Cognitive Grammar, and try to establish to what extent these are exclusively phonological facts. Specifically, we shall study the atonicity of the most prototypical prepositions, the exceptional accentuation of prepositions, the so-called contractions of prepositions and articles, and the a/e and a/ad alternations in Northern Catalan and colloquial Valencian, respectively. ItemEl tractament de les formes nominals 'invariables' quant a nombre(1995) Lloret, Maria-RosaThe starting claim of this paper is that it is not accidental that in Catalan, as in Spanish, invariable nominals regarding number end in the same form as the regular plural marker, i.e., s, and thus any analysis willing to explain these words has to take this fact into account. Under this assumption, different proposals are evaluated: the existence of a `zero'-plural morph, the blocking of s (plural marker)-insertion, the deletion of s-plural marker, the ambimorphic interpretation of -s+s, the unspecified blocking of one of the two ss, and the deletion of the s-stem. The latter analysis is favoured, except for compounds whose second element is already plural, in which case the ambimorphic analysis is preferred. ItemEls aplecs TS i DZ en valencià: una anàlisi des de la teoria de l'optimitat(1995) Jiménez, JesúsThis article intends to demonstrate that the final form of the clusters /ts/ and /dz/ in the Valencian dialect depends upon the behaviour of a series of universal principles referring to the syllabic structure. The author assumes that such restrictions are ranked on a language particular basis, according to the postulates of Optimality Theory (Prince & Smolensky 1993). Then, the outputs for the alveolar clusters will be the result of applying the constraint hierarchy to the set of possible candidates consistent with every input. The different results of the clusters /ts/ and /dz/ in Valencian, and this dialect' s divergences from other Catalan varieties are explained by the differences in the ranking of the principles which each variety presents. ItemNasal palatal : segment complex(1995) Romera, Lucrecia; Fernández, A. M.This paper focuses on the nature of a segment which is always problematical —the palatal nasal. Phonetic results found in the acoustic, perceptive and articulate spheres, showing the different features of this nasal with regards to others, are the point of departure for a brief reflection on the phonological nature of this segment, taking into account the feature geometry and the articulatory phonology. It concludes by considering the palatal nasal /?/ as a complex segment formed by /n+j/ and the imputation, to temporary effects, of a degree of major o minor assimilation and gestural overlapping during effective perception of /?/, of /n+j/ or of /n+i/. ItemSobre el concepte de derivació fonològica : alguns fenòmens vocàlics en basc i en català(1995) Hualde, José IgnacioIn the standard generative model, phonological rules are strictly ordered, potentially giving rise to complicated derivations with a large number of intermediate representations. In such a model, the order in which the rules apply is as important as the correct formulation of the rules. There are obvious conceptual problems with this theoretical framework, and in recent years several proposals which do away with rule ordering have been put forward. In this paper, we examine a number of vocalic alternations in Basque and Valencian (Southern Catalan), which in a standard generative analysis require a complex rule ordering. Adapting Lakoff' s model we show that, in every case, we can have a simple mapping between two levels with all operations applying simultaneously. In these cases at least, rule order can be shown to be an unnecessary complication. ItemCoarticulació i assimilació en fonologia: dades de moviment lingual sobre els grups consonàntics amb C2=/d/ en català(1995) Recasens, DanielThis paper uses the electromagnetic midsagittal articulometry technique (EMMA) for the investigation of tongue tip and tongue blade activity during the production of Catalan clusters consisting of consonants specified for adjacent places of articulation. C2 of these clusters is /d/ (a dental in Catalan); C1 is either an alveolar (/1/, /n/, /r/, /z/), a post-alveolar (/?/) or an alveopalatal (/?/). Apical and laminal trajectories for these clusters are compared to those for intervocalic /d/ and for intervocalic C 1. Data show the presence of a single dental articulation for /nd/ and /1d/ and of two sequential articulatory places (alveolar for Cl and dental for C2) in the case of the cluster /rd/. The clusters /zd/ and /?d/ are produced with an alveolar place followed by an intermediate place between the dental and the alveolar zone, which indicates progressive co-articulatory effects (or even progressive assimilation) from Cl fricative onto C2=/d/. Finally, the production of the sequence /?d/ involves presumably gestural blending resulting into an intermediate location between that for C1 and that for C2. The notion of «articulatory constraint» is discussed in the light of these results.