Medicina oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal. Ed inglesa. 2023. Vol. 28, no. 2

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    Thermal necrosis-aided dental implant removal:A rabbit model pilot study
    (2023) Hasanoglu-Erbasar, Neda; Güngörmüs, Mustafa; Alimogullari, Ebru; Çayli, Sevil; Peker, Elif; Narin, Abdulkadir; Orhan, Metin
    The significant advances in the materials and biological aspects of dental implants haven?t completely eradicated the implant failures. The removal of osseointegrated but otherwise failed implants present several challenges including adjacent tissues damage and necessity of bone augmentation for reimplantation. Controlled thermal necrosis has emerged as an alternative technique to aid removal of osseointegrated dental implants with minimal to no defect to healthy bone or surrounding tissues. This study aimed to evaluate the thermal necrosis-aided implant removal method in a rabbit osseointegration model. A total of 8 male New Zealand rabbits were used in the study. Two dental implants were placed on each femur of the rabbits. Heating of the implants was performed after 7 weeks following the implantation. Heating was done by contacting the tip of an electrosurgey tool in monopolar mode at different power settings and contact durations (5W ? 2 seconds, 5W ? 10 seconds, and 10 W ? 10 seconds). No heating was done on the control group. Implant stability right after implantation, before heat application and after heat application was determined using an Osstell? Mentor Device. Following the removal of implants histological analyses were performed to determine the effects of heat application at cellular level. ISQ values of the 10W-10s group was significantly lower compared to the other groups (p<0.001). No indication of progressive necrosis or irreversible damage was observed in any of the groups. However, the percent of empty-apoptotic lacunae were statistically higher in the 5W-10s and the 10W-10s groups compared the control and the 5W-2s groups. Within the conditions of this study, we conclude that heat application with an electrosurgery tool using monopolar mode at 10W power for 10 seconds is optimal for reversing osseointegration with no extensive or progressive damage to the bone.
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    Association between sleep-disordered breathing and periodontitis:a meta-analysis
    (2023) Liu, Xinyu; Zhu, Zhenkun; Zhang, Jin-Peng
    Systemic inflammation is a feature of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) as well as periodontitis. The association between SDB and periodontitis, however, has been inconsistent in previous studies. In order to fully evaluate the above association, we conducted a meta-analysis. Observational studies related to the aim of the meta-analysis were identified by search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Wanfang, and CNKI databases. Only studies with SDB diagnosed with the objective polysomnography examination were included. The results were analyzed using a random-effects model that incorporated potential heterogeneity between studies. Ten cross-sectional or case-control studies with 43,296 participants contributed to the meta-analysis. Pooled results showed that SDB was significantly associated with periodontitis (odds ratio [OR]: 1.83, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.52 to 2.20, I2 = 40%, p < 0.001). Sensitivity analysis showed consistent association for severe periodontitis (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.20 to 1.61, I2 = 0%, p < 0.001). Subgroup analyses showed consistent results in patients with mild (OR: 1.66, p < 0.001), moderate (OR: 2.23, p = 0.009), and severe SDB (OR: 2.66, p < 0.001). Moreover, the association between SDB and periodontitis was consistent in Asian and non-Asian studies, in cross-sectional and case-control studies, in studies with univariate and multivariate regression models, and in studies with different quality scores (p for subgroup effects all < 0.05). Polysomnography confirmed diagnosis of SDB is associated with periodontitis in adult population.
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    Clinical characteristics of oral chronic graft-versus-host disease according to the 2014 National Institutes of Health (USA) consensus criteria
    (2023) Pengpis, Nawaporn; Prueksrisakul, Titipong; Chanswangphuwana, Chantiya
    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a serious and common complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). The oral cavity is the second most common site affected by cGVHD. In 2014, the 2005 National Institutes of Health (NIH) consensus criteria were revised to address areas of controversy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of oral cGVHD using the 2014 NIH consensus criteria. The baseline data of oral manifestation of patients, who were diagnosed with oral cGVHD, in the first dental visit were analyzed (n=22). The oral mucosal disease was evaluated by NIH modified Oral Mucosa Rating Scale (OMRS) and Thongprasom sign score. The salivary gland disease and sclerotic disease were determined by the presence of signs and symptoms. The functional impact was assessed by the organ-specific severity score. The median time from transplant to oral cGVHD diagnosis was 11.9 months. White striae with an erosive area was found in 72.7% of the patients. The mean ± SD of NIH modified OMRS was 6.1 ± 3.0. The most common and severely affected site of lichen planus-like features was buccal mucosa. Xerostomia, superficial mucocele and limited mouth opening were found in 18.2%, 9.1%, and 9.1%, respectively, of the patients. Almost all patients (90.9%) had partial limitation of oral intake. There were no significant differences in NIH modified OMRS or organ-specific severity score among the patient characteristic groups. Moreover, there was no association between the oral manifestations of cGVHD and the patient characteristics. The most common oral manifestation of cGVHD was white striae with an erosive area of oral mucosal disease, followed by xerostomia, superficial mucocele, and limited mouth opening. The 2014 NIH consensus criteria for diagnostic and severity assessment are informative and feasible in real-world practice.
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    Decellularized allografts as an alternative for reconstruction of large inferior alveolar nerve defects:a systematic review
    (2023) Matus, Gustavo; Aravena, Juan Pablo; Mariño, Dylan; Niklander, Sven
    Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injuries are a clinical problem with devastating consequences, causing temporary or permanent paresthesia, significantly affecting the patient's quality of life. Despite morbidity, side effects and controversy regarding its results, autologous nerve grafting is still the main treatment for these type of lesions. However, due to advances in knowledge about nerve damage and with the aim of preventing the described problems of autografts, new treatment alternatives based on decellularized allografts have emerged. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the reported efficacy of decellularized allografts for the treatment of IAN damage. We performed a systematic search in Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science databases following the PRISMA guidelines. Cohort studies, randomized or non-randomized clinical studies, prospective or retrospective studies, without age limits and language restriction that included human subjects who received decellularized allograft as treatment for IAN damage were included. Six articles met the inclusion criteria and were included for data analysis. In all 6 articles, resolution of IAN damage was observed in more than 85% of patients after a 12-month follow-up period, and in 2 of them, complete resolution was observed in 100% of their patients at longer follow-ups. Decellularized allograft appears to be a promising alternative to resolve IAN lesions, without requiring a nerve autograft procedure. However, more randomized clinical trials are needed to validate adequate treatment modalities with decellularized allografts.
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    The barriers dentists face to communicate cancer diagnosis:self-assessment based on SPIKES protocol
    (2023) Martins, Beatriz Nascimento Figueiredo Lebre; Migliorati, Cesar A.; Ribeiro, Ana-Carolina-Prado; Martins, Manoela D.; Brandao, Thais-Bianca; Lopes, Márcio Ajudarte; Alves, Carolina Guimarães Bonfim; Santos Silva, Alan Roger
    This study aimed to characterize the barriers faced by Brazilian dentists to deliver bad news (DBN) about oral and oropharyngeal cancer diagnoses to patients by using a questionnaire based on the guidelines of the SPIKES protocol. This was an observational cross-sectional study. The questionnaire contained 27 questions based on the SPIKES protocol, which were answered in the SurveyMonkey platform. A total of 186/249 dentists answered the questionnaire. The main specialties reported were 36.02% oral medicine, 21.5% oral pathology, and 9.13% oral and maxillofacial surgery. A total of 44.6% expressed concern about the patient?s emotional reactions, and 46.24% of respondents had never participated in any specific training to communicate bad news. The lack of training and low confidence in dealing with patients? emotional reactions dentists were considered the greatest barriers to DBNs. Moreover, most dentists who participated in the survey believe that a protocol to guide the communication of bad news would be useful for clinical practice. For those protocols to be used by dentists, training is critical for these protocols to be incorporated by professionals.
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    Microvascular density and tumor budding in oral squamous cell carcinoma
    (2023) Assis, Eliene Magda de; Rodrigues, Mayara; Vieira, Jéssica Campos; Pascoaloti, Maria Inês Mantuani; Júnior, Helvécio Marangon; Souto, Giovanna Ribeiro; Souza, Paulo Eduardo Alencar; Horta, Martinho Campolina Rebello
    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most prevalent malignant head and neck tumor, excluding the nonmelanoma skin cancer. Despite recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment, the disease's mortality rate is nonetheless high. The presence of isolated neoplastic cells or small clusters of up to four cells at the tumor?s invasive front, named tumor budding, is associated with a worse prognosis in OSCC. Angiogenesis has also been recognized as a determining factor in the progression of malignancies and in the development of metastases. Several studies have investigated the assessment of microvascular density (MVD) as a potential prognostic factor in OSCC. This study aimed to evaluate, in OSCC, differences in MVD between tumors with high-intensity tumor budding and tumors with low-intensity or no tumor budding. In samples with high-intensity tumor budding, differences in MVD between the budding area and the area outside the budding were also evaluated. Moreover, the study assessed differences in MVD concerning clinicopathological characteristics such as sex, age, tobacco smoking, tumor location and tumor size. One hundred and fifty [150] samples of OSCC were subjected to immunohistochemistry to assess the intensity of tumor budding (by immunostaining for multi-cytokeratin) and MVD (by immunostaining for CD34 and CD105, independently). The data were treated using descriptive and analytical statistics. There were no differences in MVD, assessed by immunostaining for CD34 or CD105, concerning clinicopathological characteristics such as sex, age, tobacco smoking, tumor location and tumor size (p > 0.05). Tumors with high-intensity tumor budding did not show differences in MVD, assessed by immunostaining for CD34 or CD105, when compared to tumors with low-intensity or no tumor budding (p > 0.05). However, in samples with high-intensity tumor budding, the MVD assessed by immunostaining for CD34 was higher in the budding area than in the area outside the budding (p < 0.05). This difference was not observed when MVD was assessed by immunostaining for CD105 (p > 0.05). The higher MVD in the budding area may be an additional indication that this is a peculiar region of the tumor, associated with biological phenomena related to tumor progression.
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    Systematic mapping review of interventions to prevent blood loss, infection and relapse in orthognathic surgery
    (2023) Bendersky, Josefina; Uribe, Macarena; Bravo, Maximiliano; Vargas, Juan Pablo; Villanueva, Julio; Urrutia, Gerard; Bonfill, X.
    This systematic mapping review aims to identify, describe, and organize the currently available evidence in systematic reviews (SR) and primary studies regarding orthognathic surgery (OS) co-interventions and surgical modalities, focusing on the outcomes blood loss, infection and relapse. A comprehensive search strategy was performed to identify all SRs, randomized controlled trials and observational studies that evaluate surgical modalities and perioperative co-interventions in OS that evaluate the outcomes blood loss, infection and relapse, regardless of language or publication date. Searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Epistemonikos, Lilacs, Web of Science, and CENTRAL. In addition, grey literature was screened. 27 SRs and 150 primary studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 91 from SRs, and 59 from our search strategy. Overall, the quality of the SRs was graded as ?Critically low,? and only two SRs were rated as ?High? quality. 11 PICO questions were extracted from SRs and 31 from primary studies, which focused on osteosynthesis methods, surgical cutting devices, use of antibiotics, and induced hypotension. In addition, evidence bubble maps for each outcome were created to analyze in a visual manner the existing evidence. Future primary and secondary high-quality research should be addressed focused on the eight knowledge gaps identified in this mapping review. We concluded that the evidence mapping approach is a practical methodology for organizing the current evidence and identifying knowledge gaps in OS, helping to reduce research waste and canalize future efforts in developing studies for unsolved questions.
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    Articaine versus lidocaine inferior alveolar nerve block in posterior mandible implant surgeries:a randomized controlled trial
    (2023) Gulnahar, Yakup; Alpan, Aysan Lektemur; Gülnahar, Evrem
    The aim of this study is to compare the effects of %4 articaine and %2 lidocaine on inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) for implant surgery in the posterior mandible. The patients who have inserted implants in the posterior mandible were divided into 2 groups for IANB: lidocaine and articaine. VAS = visual analog scale, pain during surgery and injection, lip numbness time, mandibular canal-implant apex distance, age, gender, bone density, implant number, release incision, adjacent teeth, and duration of surgery were analyzed using t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman's coefficient, and, Pearson's chi-squared test. This trial followed the recommendations of the Consort Statement for reporting randomized controlled trials. 577 patients were included and 1185 dental implants were analyzed. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of injection and surgery VAS values (p>0.05). The lip numbness time of lidocaine was 3.06±3.22min while articaine was found to be 2.96±3.09min (p>0.05). Mandibular canal-implant apex distance was found to be 2.28±0.75mm in the articaine and 2.45±0.86mm in the lidocaine group (p<0.05). Release incision was made more in the articaine group (51/252) than in the lidocaine group (40/325) (p<0.05). There was no difference between the %4 articaine and %2 lidocaine in terms of pain perception in posterior mandible implant applications. Both anesthetics provided adequate anesthesia for implant application.
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    Mucocutaneous diseases with manifestations in the head and neck region:24 years of experience in a Dermatology service
    (2023) da Silva, Weslay Rodrigues; Souza, Reydson-Alcides-de Lima; Silva, Leorik-Pereira da; Filho, Luiz Gonzaga de Castro e Souza; Montenegro, Luciano Tavares; Iglesias, Déborah Pitta Paraíso
    This study aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological features of mucocutaneous diseases with manifestation in the head and neck region. A retrospective analysis of a dermatology reference center database was carried out. Over 24 years. Clinicopathological data were collected from medical records and the data was analyzed by descriptive statistics. A total of 11.538 medical records were analyzed, being 152 cases of mucocutaneous diseases with manifestations in the head and neck region. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus was the most prevalent diagnosis (66.4%). Face (44.1%), females (79.6%), and patients with 45 years mean age were the most common features. In the oral cavity, the most affected region was the buccal mucosa (37.5%). Mucocutaneous diseases with head and neck manifestation were rare in the sample analyzed (1.3%), with cutaneous lupus erythematosus and lichen planus being the most common lesions in this region.
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    Mucormycosis infection associated with global COVID-19 pandemic - an institutional histopathological study
    (2023) Keerthika, R; Narwal, Anjali; Kamboj, Mala; Devi, Anju; Anand, Rahul; Sivakumar, N; Singh, Virendra; Agarwal, Varsha; Gupta, Ambika
    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the recent times have instilled signs of immunosuppression globally which has further precipitated increasing range of opportunistic infections. Mucormycosis is a distressing opportunistic fungal infection with a high incidence and is the third commonest acute invasive infection following candidiasis and aspergillosis. The aim of the present observational study is to delineate the enigmatic histopathological profile between mucormycosis cases seen prior to pandemic (PPM) and pandemic associated mucormycosis (PAM). Tissue archives of 105 histopathologically diagnosed cases of mucormycosis were included and analysed for demographical details and histopathological parameters like fungal load and localization, granuloma formation, necrosis, inflammatory infiltrate and tissue invasion. 0ut of 105 included cases, 11/105 (10.48%) were reported PPM and 94/105 (89.52%) PAM. Among 94 cases of PAM, 51/94 (54%) cases also showed COVID-19 positivity, while 43/94 (46%) did not. Of all the histological variables, increased fungal load and necrosis were observed in PAM relative to PPM cases. The histopathological variables like fungal load, necrosis, granuloma formation and tissue invasion, could help the clinician in assessing the clinical status at the time of tissue diagnosis and improve the treatment accordingly.
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    Oral paracoccidioidomycosis:a retrospective study of 95 cases from a single center and literature review
    (2023) Oliveira, Lucineide Lima Cardoso de; Arruda, José A.; Marinho, Marcia Frias Pinto; Cavalcante, Israel Leal; Abreu, Lucas G; Corrêa-Abrahão, Aline; Romañach, Mário José; Andrade, Bruno Augusto Benevenuto de; Agostini, Michelle
    The ecoepidemiological panorama of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is dynamic and still ongoing in Brazil. In particular, data about the oral lesions of PCM are barely explored. The aim of this study was to report the clinicopathological features of individuals diagnosed with oral PCM lesions at an oral and maxillofacial pathology service in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in the light of a literature review. A retrospective study was conducted on oral biopsies obtained from 1958 to 2021. Additionally, electronic searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information, and Brazilian Library of Dentistry to gather information from large case series of oral PCM. Ninety-five cases of oral PCM were surveyed. The manifestations were more frequent among males (n=86/90.5%), middle-aged/older adults (n=54/58.7%), and white individuals (n=40/51.9%). The most commonly affected sites were the gingiva/alveolar ridge (n=40/23.4%) and lip/labial commissure (n=33/19.3%); however, one (n=40/42.1%) or multiple sites (n=55/57.9%) could also be affected. In 90 (94.7%) patients, ?mulberry-like? ulcerations/moriform appearance were observed. Data from 21 studies (1,333 cases), mostly Brazilian (90.5%), revealed that men (92.4%; male/female: 11.8:1) and individuals in the fifth and sixth decades of life were the most affected (range: 7-89 years), with the gingiva/alveolar ridge, palate, and lips/labial commissure being the sites most frequently affected. The features of oral PCM lesions are similar to those reported in previous studies from Latin America. Clinicians should be aware of the oral manifestations of PCM, with emphasis on the clinicodemographic aspects and differential diagnoses, especially considering the phenomenon of the emergence of reported cases in rural and/or urban areas of Brazil.
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    Paediatric head and neck malignant neoplasms:A brazilian retrospective study
    (2023) da Cunha, Wallena Albuquerque; Corazza Pedro, Ana Carolina; Rezende, Karla Mayra P. C.; Bönecker, Marcelo; Gallottini, Marina
    To assess the prevalence of oral and maxillofacial malignant neoplasias in children and adolescents diagnosed through biopsies sent to the Oral Pathology Laboratory at the University of Sao Paulo School of Dentistry. A retrospective analysis of anatomopathological reports on patients between 1 and 18 years old issued by the oral and maxillofacial pathology laboratory between 1997 and 2021 was performed for demographic data, lesion site, type of biopsy, diagnostic hypothesis and final diagnosis. The laboratory issued 76,194 anatomopathological reports during this period, of which 10.77% were of children and adolescents. Of this total, only 32 biopsies (32/8.204; 0.39%) were neoplasias in children and adolescents. Sarcomas were the most prevalent malignant neoplasms (19/32; 59%), followed by carcinomas (7/32; 22%), lymphomas (5/32; 16%) and ganglioneuroblastomas (1/32; 3%). Of these 32 patients, the most affected individuals were aged between 4 and 11 years old (47%), 18 (56%) were male, and the mandible was the main anatomical site involved (28%). In 41% of the cases (13/32), the diagnostic hypothesis of the biopsied lesion was mistakenly considered benign and there was no diagnostic hypothesis in 18% of the cases. Oral and maxillofacial malignant neoplasms in children and adolescents are uncommon and the accuracy of provisional diagnoses is low in these cases. Better knowledge on oral and maxillofacial malignant lesions in this population would help professionals to reduce the diagnostic time and consequently improve the patient?s prognosis.