Hybrid Vapor-Solution Sequentially Deposited Mixed-Halide Perovskite Solar Cells

The recent sky-rocketing performance of perovskite solar cells has triggered a strong interest in further upgrading the fabrication techniques to meet the scalability requirements of the photovoltaic industry. The integration of vapor-deposition into the solution process in a sequential fashion can boost the uniformity and reproducibility of the perovskite solar cells. Besides, mixed-halide perovskites have exhibited outstanding crystallinity as well as higher stability compared with iodide-only perovskite. An extensive study was carried out to identify a reproducible process leading to highly crystalline perovskite films that when integrated into solar cells exhibited high power conversion efficiency (max. 19.8%). This was achieved by optimizing the deposition rate of the PbI2 layer as well as by inserting small amounts of methylammonium (MA) bromide and chloride salts to the primary MAI salt in the solution-based conversion step. The optimum MABr/MAI molar ratio leading to the most efficient and stable solar cells was found to be 0.4. Stabilities were in excess of 90 hours for p-i-n type solar cells. This reproducible approach towards the fabrication of triple halide perovskites using a hybrid vapor-solution method is a promising method towards scalable production techniques.
Bibliographic reference
Soltanpoor, Wiria Dreessen, Chris Sahiner, M. Cem Susic, Isidora Afshord, A. Zarean Chirvony, Vladimir S. Boix, Pablo P. Gunbas, Gorkem Yerci, Selçuk Bolink, Henk 2020 Hybrid Vapor-Solution Sequentially Deposited Mixed-Halide Perovskite Solar Cells ACS Applied Energy Materials 3 9 8257 8265