La gestión de quejas y reclamaciones B2B en el contexto internacional
In the business context, the customer is a key factor for the success of companies and, therefore, they are concerned about their satisfaction. Likewise, in a competitive global environment, interest in international operations is increased; companies pursue maximum efficiency in this area, where customer operations take center stage. However, the inevitable presence of customer complaints and claims is an obstacle that companies have to overcome. Thus, the present thesis wishes to know to what extent the behavior of customers in the face of adversity can be predicted and act accordingly to achieve success in the international business relationship. In fact, the constant presence of the complaint topic, complaints and claims, in different scientific fields shows the relevance of this matter in different areas. In general, the literature review reveals numerous studies around customer satisfaction and loyalty, where the management of complaints and claims plays a very important role. However, this large number of publications focuses mainly on business-consumer relations (B2C) and does not establish clear guidelines to be followed by directors and managers. For this reason, the present investigation pursues 3 global goals: (i) to identify which are the key variables in the management of B2B complaints and claims; (ii) study the influence of these variables on the behavior of the company-client; and (iii) single out the management implications and business strategies; all this in an international context. To achieve the stated objectives, the research has been divided into three studies, each responding to a objective. In the first study, a bibliometric analysis of the complaints and claims is carried out, under the theme "complaint", in order to know the evolution of this term in the scientific community over time and thus be able to determine the variables of interest to research. This is the starting point of our work, thus obtaining the necessary knowledge to have a global vision of the subject to be analyzed: company-company (B2B) complaints and claims in the international arena. Thus, the first study stands out for examining the conceptual, social and intellectual evolution of this field of research through a longitudinal global analysis, from 1900 to 2019, through scientific maps of co-words, citations and h-index, based on data obtained from the Web of Science (WoS), where performance analysis and scientific assignment are combined. For this analysis, the SciMAT tool has been used, selecting four time periods for a total of 2,084 scientific articles published in the main scientific journals. Through bibliometric indicators, we have been able to analyze and understand the evolution of the area under study, identifying the main themes and applications for which it has been used, as well as trends for the future. In this way, the complaint investigation has made it possible to identify nine main thematic areas: Satisfaction, Behavior, Clients, Countries, Communication, Data analysis, Business, Law and Theories. With this premise, the literature review in each of these areas reveals the implication of certain variables of interest connected with customer satisfaction and loyalty, which had been dealt with in the field of B2B claims, although in the form of cases. study or specific countries. In this way, focusing on company-company relations, according to the results obtained in this first analysis, the research work is oriented towards the knowledge of the influence of these key variables in the management of complaints and claims, distinguishing two major Thematic: on the one hand, the one related to the degree of internationalization of the client-companies and, on the other, the one related to the influence of the cultural context of these clients on their relationship with the company. In the second study, the management of complaints and claims is examined as an antecedent of customer loyalty and satisfaction in B2B relations at the international level. This second study seeks to understand, first, the impact that the degree of internationalization of the company has on how complaints and claims are managed, and, second, to analyze the direct impact of this last factor on the success of companies, approximating success in terms of number of complaints filed, loyalty and customer satisfaction. With a sample of 79 client-companies in international markets and through structural modeling methodology through PLS, the results show the importance of resolving complaints in satisfaction and how this, together with the number of complaints presented, can determine the degree fidelity. Regarding the degree of internationalization of customers (ways of entering the market), the absence of significant differences leads us to a new approach: typify the latter according to the variable culture, considering the existence of different styles of communication based on this variable, as defined by the anthropologist Edward T. Hall in his book "Beyond Culture" (1976); We talk about high and low context cultures. Finally, the main objective of the third study is to detect whether different types of clients attending to their culture of origin (high context culture, low context culture and domestic/local clients) are associated in different ways with the properties / attributes related to complaint management and complaints and to the satisfaction and loyalty of the distributor customer with the manufacturing company. For this purpose, cluster analysis and perceptual map analysis have been used. The selection of the 142 clients interviewed is carried out randomly, no taking into account the presence or absence of complaints or claims, and cases with many, few or no complaints. The interest in validating the relationships between the different attributes over time leads us to a second analysis, collecting the same data two years later (2012 and 2014), and using the correlation analysis to compare the results obtained in both periods of time. Overall, the findings of these three studies provide valuable theoretical and practical implications. Its results provide value for a better understanding of complaints and claims management, while making recommendations for managers and directors, while opening new lines of investigation.