Exploring the High-Temperature Frontier in Molecular Nanomagnets: From Lanthanides to Actinides

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Molecular nanomagnets based on mononuclear metal complexes, also known as single-ion magnets (SIMs), are crossing challenging boundaries in molecular magnetism. From an experimental point of view, this class of magnetic molecules has expanded from lanthanoid complexes to both d-transition metal and actinoid complexes. From a theoretical point of view, more and more improved models have been developed, and we are now able not only to calculate the electronic structure of these systems on the basis of their molecular structures but also to unveil the role of vibrations in the magnetic relaxation processes, at least for lanthanoid and d-transition metal SIMs. This knowledge has allowed us to optimize the behavior of dysprosocenium-based SIMs until reaching magnetic hysteresis above liquid-nitrogen temperature. In this contribution, we offer a brief perspective of the progress of theoretical modeling in this field. We start by reviewing the developed methodologies to investigate the electronic structures of these systems and then move on focus to the open problem of understanding and optimizing the vibrationally induced spin relaxation, especially in uranium-based molecular nanomagnets. Finally, we discuss the differences in the design strategies for 4f and 5f SIMs, including an analysis of the metallocenium family.
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Luis Escalera-Moreno, José J. Baldoví, Alejandro Gaita-Ariño, Eugenio Coronado, Inorg. Chem. 2019, 58, 18, 11883–11892