Factors associated with dental fluorosis in three zones of Ecuador

Abstract
To determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis in 10-12 year-old school children, in three provinces of the inter-andean Region of Ecuador: Imbabura, Pichincha and Chimborazo, as well as the relationship between certain factors, considering that the latest studies go back to the year 2009. A cross-sectional and observational study was proposed. A sample of 599 was calculated at 95% of confidence considering population projections for children between 10 and 12 old of three zones of Ecuador. However, 608 school children, who had the acceptance and informed consent of their parents to participate, completed a survey about factors associated with dental fluorosis. Once the survey was completed, the vestibular surfaces of the upper and lower anterior teeth of the infant were photographed, following standardized distance and light procedures. Three evaluators, trained in the detection of fluorosis using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov index, analyzed the photographs. The Stata 13.0 software was used for the statistical analysis, with a level of significance of 5% and with a confidence interval of 95%. To relate the risk factor of fluorosis, a multinomial logistic model was used. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was of 89.96%, with a greater presence of grade 2 TF. A positive statistical relationship and statistical significance was detected between dental fluorosis and consumption of bottled beverages. Also the amount of toothpaste used and its ingestion during brushing (p = 0.000) were analyzed. The populations evaluated, that are related to the consumption of bottled beverages and involuntary toothpaste ingestion, and have a high prevalence of a mild level of fluorosis.
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Bibliographic reference
Armas Vega, Ana del Carmen ; González Martínez, Farith ; Rivera-Martínez, Mercedes-Silvana ; Mayorga-Solórzano, María-Fernanda ; Banderas-Benítez, Valeria-Elizabeth ; Guevara-Cabrera, Osmani-Fabricio. Factors associated with dental fluorosis in three zones of Ecuador. En: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry, 11 1 2019: 42-48