Efficacy of infiltrative local anesthesia and inferior alveolar nerve block in periapical surgery of lower premolars and molars : a preliminary report

Abstract
The aims of this study were: 1) compare the amount of anesthesia used with the anesthetic technique; 2) relate the quantity of anesthesia needed with the level of anxiety of the patient; 3) study the relationship between the anesthetic technique and the level of hemostasis; 4) correlate the amount of anesthesia with patient and tooth dependent variables. A randomized controlled trial was designed with two parallel groups according to the anesthetic technique: infiltrative local anesthesia (infiltrative group) and inferior alveolar nerve block (block group). The following variables were collected: sex, age, smoking habits, plaque index, symptoms, signs, position of the tooth and amount of anesthesia. Before surgery, all patients were asked to assess their anxiety on a six-item questionnaire, the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS). The analysis of the hemorrhage control of aluminum chloride was judged by the surgeon and two examiners independently and recorded it as: 0 (no hemorrhage control), 1 (slight but apparent intermittent bleeding persisted after application of the material), or 2 (complete hemorrhage control). Twenty patients were included in this preliminary report. The amount of anesthesia used was lower in block group and in less anxious patients, although these results did not reach statistical significance. A relationship was found between the quantity of anesthesia used and a good hemostasis of the bony crypt before the application of the hemostatic agent (p<.05); and between elderly patients and a lower amount of anesthetic reinforcement (p<.05). Based on these preliminary results, we can conclude that no statistical significance difference was found between the amount of anesthesia used and the anesthetic technique or the anxiety. A relationship was found between hemostasis of the bony crypt and the quantity of anesthesia used; and between younger patients and a greater amount of anesthetic reinforcement.
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Bibliographic reference
Menéndez-Nieto, Isabel ; Peñarrocha Diago, Miguel ; Cervera Ballester, Juan ; Peñarrocha Diago, María ; Peñarrocha Oltra, David. Efficacy of infiltrative local anesthesia and inferior alveolar nerve block in periapical surgery of lower premolars and molars : a preliminary report. En: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry, 12 6 2020: 581-587