Comparing oculomotor efficiency and visual attention between drivers and non-drivers through the Adult Developmental Eye Movement (ADEM) test: A visual-verbal test

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2021
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Abstract
Objective The objective of this study was to assess and compare drivers' and non-drivers' outcomes in the Adult Developmental Eye Movement test (ADEM), a visual-verbal test that measures the time needed to read series of numbers in both a vertical and horizontal reading pattern. A set of driving parameters (i.e., experience, risk exposure, and day and night perceived difficulty) and demographic variables (i.e., age, gender, and academic level) were considered as potential predictors of the test performance. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 302 healthy subjects (age range 20 to 86 years old) completed a self-reported questionnaire aimed at retrieving data on the independent variables, and underwent the ADEM in order to obtain the dependent outcomes. 214 (70.9%) of the participants were drivers. Non-parametric analyses and multilevel linear regression were used to assess differences between the variables and a prediction model. Also, some correlations were evaluated through the Spearman test. Results Drivers showed significantly better test performance than non-drivers. The age, driving experience, and perceived difficulty in driving at night were obtained as potential predictors of the test performance with the applied linear regression model. Conclusion The ADEM may be a practical, non-expensive, easy-to-apply tool in the assessment of drivers, useful for obtaining or renewing the driving license. This test may help in the detection of impairments in the saccadic efficiency that could have a detrimental effect on the driving performance.
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Gené Sampedro, Andrés Alonso Plá, Francisco Manuel Sánchez Ramos, Celia Useche, Sergio A. 2021 Comparing oculomotor efficiency and visual attention between drivers and non-drivers through the Adult Developmental Eye Movement (ADEM) test: A visual-verbal test Plos One 16 2 e0246606