Los medios de comunicación escritos virtuales en Internet: calidad científica de la difusión de la hipnosis en castellano durante 2011 y 2012. Estudios exploratorio desde una perspectiva mixta
Hypnosis has been and still being a polemical subject both in academicals spheres and in the reality of the street. This field of study has always been surrounded by myths which magnify its effects, both the positives and the negatives. The beliefs and expectations of the patients/clients and of the skilled professionals for the use of hypnosis, directly and indirectly influence both the decision of the use of this tool as well as the predictable result. In 1998 Capafons described and specified the following seven myths in which this investigation is based: Myth 1: Hypnosis does not belong to the field of scientific psychology. Its practitioners are often charlatans, quacks or showmen’s. People who improve thanks to it are credulous, ignorant and “dependents”. Myth 2: Hypnosis can leave the person “engaged” in a trance, so that, unable to “get out of the hypnotic state”, its volition will be diminished or the person will become crazy. Myth 3: Hypnosis can explicit or aggravate “dormant” psychopathologies of the person. It can even develop alterations in healthy individuals. Individuals with psychopathological problems can worsen with hypnosis. Myth 4: Hypnosis causes similar “state” to the sleep in which the person shows special characteristics. If such characteristics are not achieved, the person is not hypnotized. Someone can only be in that special situation if it receives hypnotically induction method. Myth 5: Hypnosis takes out and cancels the voluntary control of the person. It becomes a robot in the hands of the hypnotist, so it can commit criminal, antisocial or immoral acts that lead it to being socially ridiculous. Myth 6: Hypnosis causes unusual, exceptional and quasi magical reactions in people. What is remembered under hypnosis is always true. Myth 7: Hypnosis is a therapy (hypnotherapy), extremely useful, rapid and efficient which does not require any effort from the patient to change its behaviors. However, only the very susceptible persons may benefit from it Capafons (1998). Objectives 1. Collect the articles published online where the word hypnosis appears. 2. Assess the degree of reliability of the information transmitted. 3. Analyse whether if those articles diffuse some of the myths about hypnosis. 4. Looking for correlations between myths, countries and sections of the newspapers where the article appears. 5. Analyse those articles which expressly demystify hypnosis. 6. Qualitatively assess the magnitude of the iatrogenia that may occur by the transmission of myths. 7. Analyse the possible consequences for the clinical practice of such a transmission of information. 8. Description of definitions of hypnosis accessible to user in the most used encyclopaedia available internet Methodology 334 articles have been analysed which comprise all articles published between years 2011 and 2012 written in Spanish and published online in non-specialized publications press. The following variables have been tracked: date, source, scope, country, comments, title of the article, if the word hypnosis appear or not in the title, references to persons or institutions, if myths appear and what, if debunking comments exists? section, and finally, the link where the article has been found. Results Firstly, we have validated our data with a reliability analysis agreed between judges and then the appropriate statistical analyses have been realised to compare variables and detect possible relations with a significance that allows us to interpret the results. Half of the items found are published in Spain and nearly the other half in South America. The most present myths in decreasing order are the number one, the seven, the six, the five and with some distance the myths 2 and 3. The data show that, while a high number of articles in which demystifying statements are detected, it occurs that many of these same articles also contains myths. It should be noted that the highest percentage of articles that demystify are published in Spain and are associated with variable “word hypnosis in the title”. The comparison between the variables demonstrates that the myth two is linked to the international scope with a greater presence of articles published in North America. The myth four is mostly detected in articles published in South America. Myths one, four and five have been identified as significant in the leisure category, myth two in the news category and myth three in the category defined as science and culture. Finally, myths six and seven are associated to entertainment and actuality categories. Conclusions and discussion. Results demonstrate that Internet is a true reflection of the daily and scientific realities regarding the controversies and the generated interests around the hypnosis. It is proved that myths are still very present in the popular culture and are maintained with the support of their constant divulgation in the newspapers online articles. It evidences the importance of enhancing the divulgation of the works realised by health professionals about the uses and benefits of the hypnosis. This thesis opens up new lines of investigation in the field of beliefs and expectations and how these constructs can influence both patients and professionals.