Crianza, prosocialidad y relaciones entre los pares en la adolescencia. Factores implicados en los comportamientos antisociales

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Adolescence is the evolutionary stage of transition between childhood and adulthood. This period is accompanied by physiological, cognitive and social transformations, which expand the capacity to analyze and understand more complex processes, as well as the needs of expanding social relations. From the perspective of Cognitive Social Theory and Positive Psychology, emphasis should be placed on personal factors that stimulate social adaptation. However, at this stage, the adolescent is faced with personal and social conflicts, because of the new demands and new needs (Marina, Rodríguez & Lorente, 2015, Oliva et al., 2010, Viejo & Ortega-Ruiz, 2015). In this line, attention must be pay to personal protection factors inhibiting antisocial behavior. According to Bandura (2011), people act in the environment and the environment influences them, in a process of mutual interaction. In addition, the construction of the person, as an active being that processes information, leads to the principle of individual differences. This research aims at analyzing the relationships between personal, family and social mechanisms, enhancers and inhibitors of socially adapted behaviors. Personal mechanisms include empathy, prosocial behaviors, self-concept, stress coping strategies, aggressive - proactive, reactive and physical and verbal -, emotional instability and substance use. Family mechanisms are, among other, the parenting styles and the paternal-filial relationships. Finally, social mechanisms include attachment to peers, victimization and affiliation to rebel peers. To sum up, we will observe the weight of each of these groups in the development of the most socially unsuitable behaviors (proactive and reactive aggression, victimization and substance use). The sample population consists of 762 adolescents, from 12 to 16 years old (M = 13.66; DT = 1.34). They attend Secondary Education in public centers (48%) and private-concerted centers by the Valencian Government (52%). Regarding their place of origin, 81.90% are Spanish. The remaining 18.10% are distributed in Latin American countries (13.40%) and, to a lesser extent, in Eastern Europe and Western Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia and North Africa. In general, parenting results indicate that boys, compared to girls, perceive greater psychological control, based on guilt and negative evaluations. The father and the mother contribute differently to parenting. At least, this is perceived by the children themselves (Laible & Carlo, 2004, Tur-Porcar et al., 2012). Mothers have greater predictive power in children's internalized and externalized behaviors (Choe et al., 2013, Dwairy et al., 2010, Rodríguez et al., 2009). In this sense, there are strong connections between the aggressiveness of the adolescents (in the three modalities) and the raising of the father and the mother. These relationships are positive with neglect, psychological control and permissiveness of parents and negative with support and communication. In addition, as they get older, adolescents perceive less support and communication and greater parental permissiveness. Thus, the importance of parents in parenting, even in adolescence, is verified, even the grater autonomy of the sons and daughters (Eisenberg and Sulik, 2012; Lansford, Malone, Dodge, Pettit, & Bates, 2010; Laible, McGinley, Carlo, Augustine, & Murphy, 2014; Morris et al., 2007). In relation to aggressiveness and differences between groups, boys show a greater propensity for reactive, proactive, and physical and verbal aggressiveness. Proactive aggressiveness is more instrumental and premeditated, and seeks to control the behavior of others. While reactive aggressiveness is impulsive, marked by reaction to perceived provocation or threat (Cui, Colasante, Malti, Ribeaud, & Eisner, 2016, Dodge and Coie, 1987, Rodríguez, Fernández, & Ramírez, 2009; Drabick, & Chen, 2011). On the other hand, the more age, the more aggressiveness and the affiliation to rebel peers (Dishion, Véronneau, and Myers, 2010) and both variables are closely related. The problematic exteriorizing behavior refers to participation in antisocial activities, such as aggression and substance use for adolescents (Iacono, Malone & McGue, 2008). Additionally, while they grow up, adolescents perceive less support and communication and greater permissiveness of parents. All this gives us an unflattering picture and offers arguments to think that the middle adolescence is a particularly conflictive and risky stage. In any case, substance use is related to upbringing and, above all, to aggression and peer relationships (attachment and affiliation with peers). Socialization factors seem to be more important in substance use, through the processes of selection and socialization of adolescents (Samek et al., 2016), mainly in the middle adolescence (Monahan, Steinberg, Cauffman, 2009). In this sense, there seems to be connections between exteriorizing problems and affiliation with rebel peers (Dishon, Véronneau & Myers, 2010; Gardner & Steinberg, 2005) and, with it, increased risk of substance use (Trickett, 2012). Regarding the victimization of adolescents, in the light of the results there do not seem to be significant differences between boys and girls. Previous research has shown contradictory results. However, it appears that children suffer greater victimization, although these differences tend to disappear when people are involved in various types of victimization (Romano, Bell & Billette, 2011). The differences occur when different types of victimization are analyzed: males were more likely to experience multiple victimization (Finkelhor, Ormrod & Turner, 2007), while women tend to suffer greater relational victimization, such as harassment and exclusion (Craig & Pepler, 2003). As far as prosocial behavior and empathy are concerned, the results show a differential pattern for male and female adolescents. Women score higher on empathy and prosocial behavior (Dávila et al., 2011, Eisenberg et al., 2006), with the exception of public prosocial tendencies, where men are above (Carlo, Knight, McGinley, Zamboanga, & Jarvis, 2010; Carlo et al., 2014). In summary, we can conclude that the pairs are fundamental both in the development of exteriorizing behaviors, and in the initiation and maintenance of substance use in adolescence. Parents continue to play a fundamental role in the development of adolescent, although they request greater autonomy (Morris et al., 2007). Fluent paternal-filial communication, based on support and warmth, continue to be protective factors for the balanced development of children (Leiber et al., 2009; Barnhart et al., 2013; Carlo et al., 2011, Crandall et al., 2015). Simultaneously, they are inhibitors of exteriorizing behavior and substance use (Mason, Russo, Chmelka, Herrenkohl & Herrenkohl, 2017).
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