Archaeometric evidence for the earliest exploitation of lignite from the bronze age Eastern Mediterranean
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Archaeometric evidence for the earliest exploitation of lignite from the bronze age Eastern Mediterranean

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Archaeometric evidence for the earliest exploitation of lignite from the bronze age Eastern Mediterranean

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dc.contributor.author Buckley S.
dc.contributor.author Power R.C.
dc.contributor.author Andreadaki-Vlazakis M.
dc.contributor.author Akar M.
dc.contributor.author Becher J.
dc.contributor.author Belser M.
dc.contributor.author Cafisso S.
dc.contributor.author Eisenmann S.
dc.contributor.author Fletcher J.
dc.contributor.author Francken M.
dc.contributor.author Hallager B.
dc.contributor.author Harvati K.
dc.contributor.author Ingman T.
dc.contributor.author Kataki E.
dc.contributor.author Maran J.
dc.contributor.author Martin M.A.S.
dc.contributor.author McGeorge P.J.P.
dc.contributor.author Milevski I.
dc.contributor.author Papadimitrious A.
dc.contributor.author Protopapadaki E.
dc.contributor.author Salazar García, Domingo Carlos
dc.contributor.author Schmidt-Schultz T.
dc.contributor.author Schuenemann V.J.
dc.contributor.author Shafiq R., Stuijts I.
dc.contributor.author Yegoroiv D.
dc.contributor.author Yener K.A.
dc.contributor.author Schults M.
dc.contributor.author Spiteri C.
dc.contributor.author Stockhammer P.W.
dc.date.accessioned 2022-01-12T08:50:50Z
dc.date.available 2022-01-12T08:50:50Z
dc.date.issued 2021
dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/10550/81311
dc.description.abstract This paper presents the earliest evidence for the exploitation of lignite (brown coal) in Europe and sheds new light on the use of combustion fuel sources in the 2nd millennium BCE Eastern Mediterranean. We applied Thermal Desorption/Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Polarizing Microscopy to the dental calculus of 67 individuals and we identified clear evidence for combustion markers embedded within this calculus. In contrast to the scant evidence for combustion markers within the calculus samples from Egypt, all other individuals show the inhalation of smoke from fires burning wood identified as Pinaceae, in addition to hardwood, such as oak and olive, and/ or dung. Importantly, individuals from the Palatial Period at the Mycenaean citadel of Tiryns and the Cretan harbour site of Chania also show the inhalation of fire-smoke from lignite, consistent with the chemical signature of sources in the northwestern Peloponnese and Western Crete respectively. This first evidence for lignite exploitation was likely connected to and at the same time enabled Late Bronze Age Aegean metal and pottery production, significantly by both male and female individuals.
dc.language.iso eng
dc.relation.ispartof Scientific Reports, 2021, vol. 11, p. 24185
dc.rights.uri info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.source Buckley S. Power R.C. Andreadaki-Vlazakis M. Akar M. Becher J. Belser M. Cafisso S. Eisenmann S. Fletcher J. Francken M. Hallager B. Harvati K. Ingman T. Kataki E. Maran J. Martin M.A.S. McGeorge P.J.P. Milevski I. Papadimitrious A. Protopapadaki E. Salazar García, Domingo Carlos Schmidt-Schultz T. Schuenemann V.J. Shafiq R., Stuijts I. Yegoroiv D. Yener K.A. Schults M. Spiteri C. Stockhammer P.W. 2021 Archaeometric evidence for the earliest exploitation of lignite from the bronze age Eastern Mediterranean Scientific Reports 11 24185
dc.subject Arqueologia
dc.title Archaeometric evidence for the earliest exploitation of lignite from the bronze age Eastern Mediterranean
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.date.updated 2022-01-12T08:50:51Z
dc.identifier.doi https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-03544-w
dc.identifier.idgrec 149485

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