El fenómeno del subempleo en el proceso de inserción laboral de los jóvenes, sus conductas y actitudes laborales
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El fenómeno del subempleo en el proceso de inserción laboral de los jóvenes, sus conductas y actitudes laborales

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El fenómeno del subempleo en el proceso de inserción laboral de los jóvenes, sus conductas y actitudes laborales

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dc.contributor.advisor Rocabert Beut, Esperanza
dc.contributor.advisor Peiró Silla, José María
dc.contributor.author García Castro, Lorena
dc.contributor.other Departament de Psicologia Social es_ES
dc.date.accessioned 2017-09-18T12:45:21Z
dc.date.available 2017-10-19T04:45:05Z
dc.date.issued 2017 es_ES
dc.date.submitted 19-09-2017 es_ES
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10550/60911
dc.description.abstract El propósito de esta tesis es ahondar en el estudio del subempleo en los jóvenes en España en su primera etapa de desarrollo de carrera, al inicio de su inserción laboral. Se han realizado tres estudios usando 3 sub-muestras de jóvenes en España con experiencia laboral. La muestra se obtuvo gracias al proyecto Bancaja IVIE a través del Observatorio de Inserción Laboral. Se analiza el constructo del Subempleo a través de la propuesta de un modelo de medida unifactorial que compara 5 tipos de subempleo en contraposición a un modelo bifactorial (subempleo en los aspectos íntrísecos y extrínsecos). El segundo objetivo fue conocer los efectos diferenciados del subempleo en aspectos importantes como lo es el rol mediador de la satisfacción laboral en facetas (intrínseca y extrínseca) en la relación del subempleo diferenciado y la propensión al abandono utilizando ecuaciones estructurales. Y por último, la identificación de las trayectorias laborales de los jóvenes desde la sobreeducación, identificando los diversos paths, sus diferencias en lo relativo a los antecedentes académicos y en su relación con las actitudes laborales utilzando clusters. Los resultados muestran que el modelo bifactorial muestra mejores índices de ajuste, suponiendo un avance en el estudio del constructo, sus dimensiones y medidas. Estos resultados confirman la Teoría de Ajuste Persona-Puesto. Los resultados del segundo objetivo prueban la importancia de estudiar el subempleo de manera diferenciada (aspectos intrínsecos y extrínsecos) a la hora de observar sus efectos. El subempleo diferenciado se relaciona negativamente con la satisfacción en facetas. El rol mediador de las facetas de la satisfacción se comportan diferente, el subempleo en los aspectos intrínsecos muestra un efecto directo en la satisfacción laboral intrínseca y también en la propensión al abandono, por lo que la mediación es parcial; mientras que la satisfacción extrínseca media totalmente el efecto del subempleo en los aspectos extrínsecos y la propensión al abandono presentando una mediación total. Los resultados del tercer objetivo arrojan 4 tipos de trayectorias en la inserción laboral de los jóvenes. Estos grupos son: ajustados, ligeramente sobreeducados, altamente sobreeducados y movilidad al ajuste. Estos paths confirman las hipótesis de entrada al mercado laboral. Las trayectorias sobreeducadas confirman la hipótesis de atrapamiento, al iniciar en puestos sobreeducados y permanecer en ellos en su tercer puesto; en el caso de la trayectoria de movilidad al ajuste también se confirma la hipótesis de puerta de entrada en el segmento no óptimo que indica que el desajuste es transitorio y que las primeras posiciones sobreeducadas son peldaños que se pueden tener sin repercusiones posteriores, ya que a pesar de iniciar sobreeducada, en su tercer puesto se ajusta. Estos resultados no son del todo concluyentes para la Teoría de Movilidad de Carrera. Se analizaron variables académicas y actitudinales que permiten obtener mayor información de cada grupo de jóvenes en su inicio laboral. Se discuten las implicaciones teóricas y prácticas de estos hallazgos. es_ES
dc.format.extent 236 p. es_ES
dc.language.iso es es_ES
dc.subject subempleo es_ES
dc.subject inserción laboral es_ES
dc.subject modelo de medida es_ES
dc.subject jóvenes es_ES
dc.subject trayectorias laborales es_ES
dc.subject satisfacción laboral es_ES
dc.subject underemployment es_ES
dc.subject job fit es_ES
dc.subject mismatch es_ES
dc.title El fenómeno del subempleo en el proceso de inserción laboral de los jóvenes, sus conductas y actitudes laborales es_ES
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis es_ES
dc.subject.unesco UNESCO::PSICOLOGÍA es_ES
dc.description.abstractenglish SUMMARY Due to the global changes that have been taking place as the economic crisis and the actions for its recovery, Organizations respond to these challenges with strategies that have impacted on the way of working, with repercussions on the labor market; offering jobs of good and poor quality, with labor contracts that do not ensure the continuity, and an excess of demand of young people, whom in turn, are more and more educated. Faced with this disproportion, the newly graduated have been affected, by accepting positions below their studies or expectations in order to move away from unemployment. The analysis of young people’s choices in their first positions, as well as thorough investigation as underemployment affects these groups, is one of the main objectives of this thesis. OBJECTIVES The main objective of this paper is to contribute to the study of underemployment. Given the multidimensional characteristic of this construct, as well as the lack of consensus in its conceptualization and operationalization, one of our first objectives is to test the validity of a model of measurement of underemployment that takes into account the different dimensions from the model proposed by Feldman (1996). Secondly, we intend to analyze the effects of underemployment on two occupational attitudes: job satisfaction and intentions to quit. Having verified empirical evidence showing relationships between underemployment and satisfaction, as well as between satisfaction and intentions to quit, we propose to analyze whether satisfaction plays a mediating role in that effect. Another of our objectives is to analyze the mediating role that the facets of job satisfaction can have in the relationship between underemployment and intentions to quit. Finally, the thesis aims to analyze the dynamics of underemployment (overqualification), through the study and analysis of the employment history of young people in Spain during their first three jobs. Once we identify the different labor trajectories that our sample presents, we intend to analyze the differences between them, taking into account both the academic variables of the participant and his / her family, as attitudinal labor variables of young people. DESIGN This thesis has a transitional or transverse research design, since the data have been collected in a single time. The data have been collected in two different waves: in 2005 and 2008, obtaining information on the employment history of the jobs performed during the five years prior to the data collection. It should be noted that these are not the same subjects, so it is not considered a longitudinal study. This transverse design describes the situation of subjects at the time of data collection, however, it seeks to carry out relations between two or more categories, concepts and / or variables at a given time, so this transverse design is also correlational. DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE The research was carried out with a sample of young workers, surveyed within the lines of research of the Observatory of Labor Integration of the Youth in a research project financed by Bancaja and the Valencian Institute of Economic Investigations (IVIE) in the waves 2005 and 2008 (García-Montalvo & Peiró, 2009; García-Montalvo, Peiró & Soro, 2003, 2006). In both editions the design of data collection started from a stratification that was based on the size of the provinces and cities. After the proportional distribution within each area, the cities were selected according to two criteria: to obtain at least two cities in each stratum, and a minimum of six interviews in each city. When there were more than two cities in each stratum the selection was carried out randomly, with probabilities proportional to the size of the group of young people between 16 and 30 years old. In each selected city, the sampling units were obtained by the procedure of random routes with quotas by gender. After two unsuccessful contact attempts, unresponsive persons were replaced by a randomly chosen replacement of the same age and gender. The method of data collection was mixed: previous collection of the sample through telephone contact with the young people who were interviewed, and who were informed of the characteristics and importance of the survey; and conducting personal face-to-face interviews at the interviewee's home or place agreed for this purpose. In the 2005 sample, a total of 3991 questionnaires were collected. The sample was obtained as follows: 270 surveys for the city of Madrid, 270 surveys for the city of Barcelona. In the case of the Valencian Community (1926 questionnaires) were selected the surveys carried out in municipalities of 50 thousand or more inhabitants. For the rest of Spain, 1500 surveys were conducted among 15 randomly selected municipalities with probabilities proportional to the population in the 2001 census. These municipalities were: Bilbao, Cáceres, Lleida, Lugo, Málaga, Mallorca, Móstoles, Murcia, Salamanca, Seville, Talavera, Valladolid, Vigo, Vitoria and Zaragoza. In the 2008 sample was 3000 individuals. Five units of analysis were identified: Comunidad Valenciana, Madrid and Barcelona, urban Spain (municipalities with more than 50 thousand inhabitants), and non-urban Spain (municipalities with less than 50 thousand inhabitants). For the accomplishment of the studies that make up this thesis, some of the subjects of both waves have been selected according to the research objectives, which will be described in detail in each of the studies as well as the analysis of the data. MEASUREMENTS In order to analyze underemployment, taking into account the research objectives, we have selected a series of variables that we will describe below, as well as the measurement instruments that have been used for its operationalization. Measures of underemployment For the measurement of each type of underemployment, the Observatory of Labor Insertion of the Youth in Spain IVIE-Bancaja Foundation, used measures of own elaboration that we detail (García-Montalvo, Palafox, Peiró & Prieto, 1997; García-Montalvo & Peiró, 2001, 2009, 2011, García-Montalvo et al., 2003; The first study is dedicated to the elaboration of a model of measurement that allows to analyze five types of underemployment. Overeducation is measured by counting the discrepancy between the years of schooling of the participants and the years of schooling required to perform the job. In one moment of the survey, the participant answer a question about years of schooling and in other part of the survey, the participant answers the question: “If you had to advise a person to occupy your job, what level of education would you advise to do?” Then, we compare the years of education of the participant minus years of schooling of the job position. We obtain a variable with positive numbers (more years of education that requires in the job), cero (adjust between years of schooling and years required by the job) and negative numbers (people who have less education that required by the job). The undereducated participants are dismissing in this study because is not studied in the present research. Overqualification is measured with the question: “Believe that your work is adequate to your qualifications and / or experience?” The answers was: (1) reasonably adequate, (2) Above my qualifications and (3) Below my qualifications. This variable is dummy, the participants who responded 1 transform in 0, the participants who responded 3 were transformed in 1 as overqualified workers. We dismiss the participants with below qualifications, as the same of the undereducated previously mentioned, underqualification is not part of this study. Involuntary part time is measured asking two main questions: the first question validate the preference of the type of schedule: “Suppose you have a part-time job (20 hours) with a salary of 600 euros per month and offer you a full-time job (40 hours) for which you will earn as double (1200 euros). Which do you prefer?” The possible answers are: (1) Indifferent, (2) The 20 hours job, (3) The new one (40 hours). The second question is about the actual job o last one: “What type of job do you have?” and the answers: (1) Full time job and (2) Part time job. Involuntary part time are conform by the participants who prefer a full time position and has a part time position (are coded as 1). This variable is dummy. All the participants who have the schedule accord their preference (FT-FT or PT-PT) are coded as 0, because the participants work in the type of schedule desired. We dismiss the participants who work in full time job and desired part time job, because in this type of misfit, it’s considerate an overload position. Temporary work is a variable that indicates the type of contract of the participants. The question is about the type of contract of the current job or last one. At the question about type of contract, the possible answers are: (1) temporal contract, (2) training or internship, (3) seasonal contract, (4) trying period contract and (5) substitution. All of them are temporary work and was coded as 1. The answers coded as 0 represent the following type of fixed-contracts (permanent): permanent contract and functionary (positions in public sector). Underpayment, this underemployment dimension are calculated according of the salary of the participants. We ask for the salary of any job position in their work’s trajectory taking in account previously and actual job position. We ask for the net salary by month and then, was divided by the number of hours of work in order to obtain salary by hour. Then, we made a comparison between the current hour salary and the hour salary of the previous job. Participants who earn in their actual job less money that previous one are coded as 1. Participants who earn equal or more money in the actual job are coded as 0. In order to measure this type of underemployment, only those individuals who had more than one job were selected from the sample, since this measure when compared to the salary of the previous job does not include subjects who have only worked in a single occasion. Academic and Attitudinal Variables Academic level of the young person. For the analysis of the student's academic level, he was asked to select the highest level reached, offering as possible answers the following (Garcia-Montalvo et al., 2003; 2006): 1. Without studies 2. Primary / School Certificate 3. School Graduate 4. Middle Grade Cycles 5. Higher Degree Cycles 6. High School 7. Middle School 8. Higher University 9. Master / Doctorate Academic level of parents. For the analysis of the academic level of the parents (father and mother), participants were asked to select the highest level reached by each of them, offering as possible answers the following (García-Montalvo et al., 2003; 2006): 1. Without studies 2. Primary / School Certificate 3. Elementary / Elementary Bachelor 4. Vocational Training 1 5. Vocational Training 2 6. Higher Baccalaureate 7. Middle School 8. Higher University 9. Master / Doctorate Academic Note of the Young person. In order to analyze the academic achievement achieved by the young person in his academic career, he / she was asked the following question: "What is the most frequent note in your overall file?" (García-Montalvo et al., 2003), possible options were: 1. Suspended 2. Approved 3. Noteworthy 4. Outstanding 5. Registration Duration of work. The duration of the work of each of the positions was analyzed by asking them the number of days that their performance lasted in each one of the positions. For this measure, only the duration of the first two positions has been taken into account since in relation to the third position there was a percentage of the sample that, because its contract was in force, did not have this information available. Job satisfaction. The variable measures the degree of satisfaction that individuals have in relation to different labor aspects. Given the importance of differentiating the facets of satisfaction, in this study we will measure both the extrinsic and the intrinsic labor facet. For this, we will base ourselves on the measures of García-Montalvo et al. (2003, 2006). Satisfaction with the extrinsic aspects of work. This variable describes extrinsic job satisfaction as an emotional response or general attitude toward extrinsic aspects of work activity, such as income, job stability, promotion opportunities or working conditions. The scale consists of 7 items for which it is requested to specify the degree of satisfaction with the following aspects: a) The schedule; B) Promotion opportunities; C) Stability at work; D) Good salary; E) Physical conditions (health and hygiene); F) A work without excessive stress or pressure; G) A large vacation. The response scale ranges from 1 (Not satisfactory) to 5 (Very satisfactory). The reliability coefficient (Cronbach's Alpha) for study 2 is .85 and for study 3 it is .91. Satisfaction with the intrinsic aspects of the work. Intrinsic satisfaction is characterized by an emotional response of the individual to aspects of his work such as the tasks to be performed, the opportunities to learn that are offered to the young person, the skills required by the job, and the initiative and responsibility required of the respondent. To measure it, the scale used in García-Montalvo et al. (2003; 2006) has been used, consisting of 7 items for which the degree of satisfaction with the following aspects is requested: a) The variety of tasks to be performed; B) The learning opportunities they provide; C) The skills required by the position; D) The degree of autonomy that they allow when doing the work; E) The meaning and meaning of the work; F) The degree to which it allows initiative; G) The responsibilities involved. The response scale ranges from 1 (Not satisfactory) to 5 (Very satisfactory). The reliability coefficient (Cronbach's Alpha) for study 2 is .92 and in study 3 it is .85. Intentions to quit. The variable represents the evaluation that makes the subject on the relationship that maintains with the organization and its desire or not to leave it. For the analysis of the propensity to abandon the organization, the scale used in García-Montalvo et al. (2006) that consists of three items: 1) Lately, I have enough desire to leave this organization; 2) I would like to stay in this organization as long as possible; 3) If I could leave this job today. The scale calls for the level of agreement (1 = Strongly Disagree and 5 = Strongly Agree) with those options. The reliability coefficient (Cronbach's Alpha), for study 2, is .83 and for study 3 of .79. DATA ANALYSIS To analyze the preliminary calculations, descriptive analyzes of the quantitative and qualitative variables (percentages, means and standard deviations) have been made. The reliability of Spearman's scales and correlation coefficients has also been calculated to be able to analyze the relationships between the variables considered as well as their meaning. To cover the proposed objectives and to be able to evaluate the factor structure of the underemployment construct in the first study, two confirmatory factorial analyzes (CFA) have been performed. First, a CFA was made considering underemployment as a one-dimensional construct; and secondly, contemplating it with a bifactorial model. In this way, we have been able to analyze how the dimensions of underemployment can behave when saturated in two factors. The CFA’s results were obtained through the covariance matrix of the items using the Weighted Least Squares estimation method to estimate the parameters. The PRELIS v 2.3 and LISREL v 8.8 softwares (Jöreskog & Sörbom, 2006) were used for the analysis. In order to answer the other research questions of the thesis, different types of statistical analysis have been carried out, depending on the designs and hypotheses presented in each one of the studies. In order to address the second objective of the thesis (the mediating role of job satisfaction between underemployment and abandonment propensity), an analysis of structural equations was performed. For this, the mediating variables (intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction) were returned on the predictor variable (propensity to abandonment). Second, the dependent variables (underemployment of intrinsic and extrinsic aspects) were returned on the predictor variable. And finally in the third place the dependent variables were returned on the predictor variable and the mediators. Mediations were tested through the AMOS program. Bootstrapping was conducted to prevent issues of asymmetry or other forms of non-normal distribution. The model was analyzed by calculating a Structural Equation Model (SEM) using the IBM SPSS AMOS 21 software. Maximum probability estimation methods were used. The goodness of fit of the model was determined with: the statistic χ2 of goodness of fit; The Average Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA). Relative goodness adjustment indices were calculated with the Non-Normed Fit Index (NNFI) and the Comparative Fit Index (CFI). In order to approach the third objective of the Thesis, the analysis of the labor trajectories in function of the sobreeducation, was realized cluster analyzes. In order to identify the determinant antecedents of the work placements (academic level of the young person, academic level of the father and mother and academic note of the subject file), its relation with the duration of the work; as well as the effects of trajectories (extrinsic, intrinsic job satisfaction and propensity to abandonment), analyzes of variance (ANOVA) and their corresponding post hoc analyzes were carried out. RESULTS AND CONCLUSSIONS The results of this research allow us to contribute valuable information in the study of the mismatch in the positions of young people in Spain during their first stage of labor insertion. The first of the studies responds to the need to inquire about underemployment given the lack of agreement found in the revisions of the construct, the results direct their focus towards the types of underemployment, overqualification and overeducation (underemployment in the intrinsic aspects), being these, which define the situations of underemployment, above the extrinsic aspects that also characterize it (dedication, contract and salary). One of the advances made by this thesis is that it has incorporated five different types of underemployment into the same model in the same research, and that the results confirm that the bifactorial model has better indexes in congruence with the Person-Job Fit Theory (Edwards, 1991 ) and the proposal of Maynard and Feldman (2011) and Peiró, Sora and Caballer (2012). These two types of imbalance have more relevant consequences in the medium and long term, since these aspects increase the deterioration of the human capital acquired by the young person by not putting it into practice nor can practice and develop the competences acquired during their formation. Proposing actions aimed at reducing the imbalance in the initial positions of young people will help to improve the subsequent adjustment of young people. Due to the lack of agreement in the definition and measurement of underemployment, the results of this work support the position of researchers who propose the use of subjective measures that allow better identification of the perception and possible discomfort of the individual in his / her work situation (Maltarich, Nyberg & Reilly, 2011; Verdugo and Verdugo, 1989). Maynard et al., 2006 suggests that the perception of being in a lower position better explains underemployment and supports the importance of a subjective approach (Feldman & Tunley, 1995; Johnson & Johnson, 1996; Khan & Morrow, 1991). Regarding the objective view of underemployment, this paper has used objective measures, particularly indirect self-reports such as the measurement of overeducation. This type of underemployment also scores high on the saturation of the construct showing as the second type of underemployment. In this work, another success has been the operationalization of measures of underemployment in the objective as the subjective aspects. In some cases, it is the fundamental fact to be sure in the measurement of voluntary choice for jobs with these characteristics, for example in the case of dedication-related underemployment (part-time work), following the suggestions of Holtom et al. (2002). Regarding underemployment in the extrinsic aspects of work, it is important to differentiate underemployment related to dedication to work taking into account their peculiarities and their voluntariness. In the case of underemployment defined by Feldman (1996) as: "the person involuntarily is in a part-time position, or has a temporary or intermittent job" it is suggested to review and limit these conditions; Connelly and Gallagher (2004), indicate that there are more and more types of non-standard work that respond to the needs of organizations and that subjects respond to them in different ways. For this reason, the analysis of the dedication in the work, differentiating it from other types of underemployment as the derivative of the type of contract will allow to know its scope. Finally, to emphasize that the wage is the type of underemployment that contributes least of all considered to the global construct. Future research could identify what part of this mismatch is a type of underemployment and part responds to an effect of another type of underemployment. The second objective of the study is aimed at analyzing the effects of underemployment by differentiating the two factors identified in the bifactorial model on the corresponding facets of job satisfaction (intrinsic and extrinsic) and the intentions to quit. This study also analyzes the mediating role of the facets of job satisfaction in the relationship between the variables of underemployment and intentions to quit. Our results prove the importance of studying in a differentiated way, underemployment in its intrinsic and extrinsic aspects. In this sense, we have verified that each of them is negatively related to the corresponding facet of job satisfaction. These results confirm the proposal of Maynard et al. (2006), on the need to study the effects of underemployment by differentiating job satisfaction in facets. Tang (2000), argues that two individuals may express job satisfaction in the same proportion but due to different reasons. The results of this study differ from those found by Herzberg (Herzberg, 1966; Herzberg et al., 1959) that indicates that intrinsic aspects had a greater influence on job satisfaction than extrinsic factors. Thus, it is important to pay attention equally to the dissatisfaction generated in the subjects either by one type of underemployment or another, as both affect satisfaction in their corresponding facets. In relation to the mediating role of the facets of job satisfaction, the results show that intrinsic job dissatisfaction explains the propensity to abandon the underemployed in intrinsic aspects, but this also has a direct effect on the propensity to abandonment. These results go beyond those obtained by Udechukwu (2007), who showed empirical evidence that the determining factors for the thoughts of leaving the organization were the intrinsic factors showing superiority over the extrinsic ones. In our study, underemployment due to overeducation and overqualification has a direct effect on both the intrinsic job satisfaction and intentions to quit. Young people seem to have a tendency to think of leaving the organization because of their overqualification or overeducation condition, which may mean that this condition in itself has more weight in that intention than the perceived degree of intrinsic satisfaction. On the other hand, underemployment in the extrinsic aspects differs from the intrinsic ones since its influence on intentions to quit the organization occurs in its entirety through extrinsic job satisfaction. And finally, to analyze if this phenomenon of underemployment that is presented to us as usual in the insertion of young people tends to be transitory or permanent in a country like Spain, that has high levels of education in its population but also presents a high rate of unemployment youth. Therefore, the third objective responds to the need to deepen the initial trajectories of the work history of the young people (the three initial positions), this being a very important part of the research, to better understand how the professional development of these young people is taking place. Young people in this first stage of insertion, allowing to go beyond the analysis of the first position or step in the labor insertion. This has allowed us to identify differences between the various over-educated or adjusted trajectories with respect to some academic antecedents and their effects on attitudinal aspects (job satisfaction and intentions to quit). The results of this study have identified four different types of work experience in young people. These four types of trajectories respond to clusters that arise from the analysis of the level of overeducation. The detailed analysis of these seems to respond to the different theoretical proposals concerning the labor market. The first one is made up of adjusted group (match between schooling of worker and the level of education to perform the job position), being the group with the largest representation of the sample (48.24%). This group seems to represent the assumption of the theory of dual market entry to the "primary good segment", which ensures that if it starts in a good labor market stays in it. This group brings together the young people who have started their insertion appropriate to their training and who are still adjusted along the three jobs that have been analyzed, despite being the group with less years of education than the rest. The second and third groups, called slightly over-educated and highly over-educated, respectively, confirm the entrapment hypothesis derived from the Dual Market Theory, which states that when entering a "secondary bad segment" will be difficult to get out of it, and become as an entrapment situation. Both groups together represent 36.40% of the sample. The highly over-educated group presents a slight movement toward adjustment in the third job, which suggests that in the medium term, when acquiring other types of skills and work experience, could arrive at the adjustment, but the truth is that in the observed period its level of mismatch is high. These results reinforce the premise that overeducation persists over time and takes time to move towards adjustment. There are several countries that confirm this insertion behavior, and it is observed that it is quite generalized in the labor insertion of the young (Battu et al., 1999; Dolton & Vignoles, 2000; Rubb, 2003; Frenette, 2004; Groot & Maassen van den Brink, 2000; Verhaest et al., 2015). The identification of these two groups of over-educated young people questions the career mobility theory (Sicherman and Galor, 1990), which states that the first positions despite "not being optimal" do not have negative consequences for the young person in his later professional career. However, our study also identifies a group of young people, which we call mobility to adjustment, which represents 15.30% of young people and, unlike the previous two, if it seems to support the Mobility Theory of Career (Sicherman & Galor, 1990) achieving an adjustment in the third place. Therefore our results seem to reflect a variety in the trajectories of incorporation into employment and the labor market, also showing the usefulness of the different explanatory theories of the labor insertion of the first stage of career development of individuals, not excluding any of them. Labor insertion is a complex process in which many variables intervene, so that hardly a single theory can explain the totality of the mechanisms involved in labor insertion, especially that of the beginnings. In order to be able to know and differentiate one trajectory from another, an analysis of different academic variables was made as a background of the labor trajectories have been of interest to understand better part of these labor trajectories. One of these variables is the academic level of the parents. The academic level of the father does not play a differentiating role among the four groups of trajectories; however, it is relevant to predict the membership of one or another group, the level of studies of the mother. The group with mobility to adjustment, is the group that is included by children of mothers with higher academic level, compared to the adjusted group. Thus, in this context, the role of mothers with higher levels of education can be key in influencing the trajectories of young people to achieve adjustment. The expectations of these mothers for their children to get a job according to their training may have contributed to not giving up until finding a suitable job. Regarding the academic variables of the young, the results show that the young people who present the highest mark in the file, are then included in the group of highly over-educated. The difference is significant compared to the adjusted who are the ones with the lowest score. These results are counterintuitive and will require further study in subsequent studies. In any case they are not very favorable when it comes to the insertion of those who get the best grades. The great effort to obtain a good academic record surely is coupled with an expectation of being rewarded with a job commensurate with such dedication and yet the data confirm us that it is not occurring. It is for this group of young people where the Theory of Human Capital does not have a clear answer to its overeducation. There are other factors that could explain this situation. For example, it may be that in the workplace there are not enough jobs for people with high levels of education. Already Verhaest and Velden (2010), considered that this group of young people with higher education levels could be the most harmed in times of crisis. It seems that those who study more years and get better grades are the least favored when it comes to finding jobs adjusted. However, the group of young people with mobility to adjustment, who also has good grades and more years of study than the group of slightly over-educated young people, is able to break the inertia of the poor labor segment reaching adjustment. One achievement of this study is the analysis of the duration of the work of young people with overeducated trajectories. The results indicate that the highly over-educated group and the slightly over-educated group present significant differences in the duration of their work, which is significantly lower compared to the adjusted group. The evidence (Büchel & Mertens, 2000) confirms that over-educated people will choose to seek a change of employment that allows them to achieve adjustment. However, the results of this movement by the highly over-educated group in the positions analyzed do not show this trend toward adjustment. On the other hand, the group of mobility to the adjustment is after the adjusted ones, the group that remains more days in the positions. This could mean that they take advantage of the position in which they are incorporating new competences and that they develop the ones that they possess, in order to improve their employability when later looking for another job. These young people can take advantage of learning opportunities differently from others by using stepping stones that contribute to their subsequent employability through training. In the last part of the study the labor attitudes of the groups are analyzed, being the group of mobility to the adjustment that presents the highest indices of intrinsic satisfaction at the same time as a lower intentions to quit. For all of this we can conclude that starting with an over-educated career position can lead to two possible job situations: 1) A situation of greater permanence in the misalignment due to overeducation, despite starting with the best human capital (higher academic grades and educational levels). This trend may be due to the lower intrinsic job satisfaction that leads to a greater propensity to leave the position soon, which is reflected in the shorter duration in positions. 2) A more encouraging situation for insertion in the group in which, despite the fact that it coincides with the young people in the previous situation, such as starting a professional career, performing misaligned jobs and also possessing good human capital. The second to present better records and levels of education, distinguishes them from having greater intrinsic job satisfaction, lower intentions to quit and lasting longer in their jobs. Perhaps the role that may be playing in the mother’s family that is characterized by having the highest educational levels of the entire sample, could be influencing. It is foreseeable that mothers with a higher educational level transmit to their children higher expectations for work performance, more adjusted to the training received and that can be a support and an incentive for their children. At the same time, they may be able to facilitate the expansion of social contact networks, which are so important in improving the employability of young people. Another distinguishing characteristic between these two situations is the level of overeducation with which they initiate the insertion. In the first case it is high while in the second case it is medium. Perhaps starting from a medium mismatch favors mobility. The practical implications range from the family, the school, the government and the private sector. It is important on the one hand to generate more quantity and better quality of the work to face all the people who hope to be able to work as soon as possible in positions according to their studies. At the same time, it will be necessary to encourage entrepreneurship for young people to propose projects for the creation of jobs and, in turn, to increase working positions for young people. es_ES
dc.embargo.terms 1 month es_ES

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