Impact of Undernourishment on the Pharmacokinetics of Erlotinib and Gefitinib in Rats
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Impact of Undernourishment on the Pharmacokinetics of Erlotinib and Gefitinib in Rats

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Impact of Undernourishment on the Pharmacokinetics of Erlotinib and Gefitinib in Rats

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dc.contributor.advisor Merino Sanjuán, Matilde
dc.contributor.advisor Merino Sanjuán, Virginia
dc.contributor.advisor Nácher Alonso, Amparo
dc.contributor.author Pérez Pitarch, Alejandro
dc.contributor.other Departament de Farmàcia i Tecnologia Farmacèutica es_ES
dc.date.accessioned 2017-04-27T09:32:07Z
dc.date.available 2017-04-28T04:45:06Z
dc.date.issued 2017 es_ES
dc.date.submitted 25-04-2017 es_ES
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10550/58314
dc.description.abstract The relationship between nutritional status and pharmacokinetics has been previously studied for classical anticancer drugs, but this relationship remains unexplored for modern therapies involving targeted drugs and new administration routes. In this context, the main objective of this thesis was to evaluate, in undernourished and well-nourished Wistar rats, the impact of undernourishment on the pharmacokinetics of erlotinib and gefitinib, two novel orally administered targeted-drugs. The research investigation was divided into three main experiments: • Evaluation of analytical and molecular alterations associated with undernourishment • In situ intestinal perfusion studies • In vivo pharmacokinetics studies This Doctoral Thesis yielded the following conclusions: 1. Undernourishment causes significant alterations on mRNA expression levels of intestinal and hepatic metabolic enzymes (Cyp1A1, Cyp1A2 and UDP) and transporter proteins (OATP, MRP2 and P-gp). In liver tissue, mRNA levels of all the quantified metabolic enzymes, except for cytochromes, were diminished in undernourishment status. On the other side, alterations of mRNA levels in intestinal tissue do not follow a particular trend and the final outcome is dependent on the assayed intestinal segment and on the evaluated enzyme. 2. The observed alterations in alanine-aminotransferase and aspartate-aminotransferase hepatic enzymes, along with the reduction of albumin plasmatic concentration, confirm the occurrence of hepatic damage as a result of undernourishment status. Likewise, the decreased count of blood cells corroborates bone-marrow dysfunction under protein-energy under-nutrition. 3. A passive diffusion uptake process and an active secretion process control erlotinib intestinal absorption through both of the assayed intestinal segments. This active secretion process is sensitive to nutritional status and to the presence of levofloxacin. 4. A passive diffusion uptake process governs gefitinib intestinal absorption, which proved not to be influenced by the addition of sodium azide to the perfusion solution. Furthermore, under this in situ assay conditions, alterations of gefitinib absorption process did not take place as a consequence of the nutritional status of rats. 5. A two-compartment model proved to describe best the pharmacokinetic profiles both for erlotinib and gefitinib. 6. A 5% decrease in erlotinib clearance takes place in undernourishment status. Drug bioavailability in magnitude (f) and rate (ka) are dependent on nutritional status and on the type of dispersion system employed for oral administration: • Bioavailability in magnitude is incomplete only when erlotinib suspension is administered to norm-nourished rats. • Absorption rate constant is 52% lower when erlotinib solution is administered in undernourished rats as compared to the administration in norm-nourished rats. These results yield an expected 20% higher area under the concentration-time curve for erlotinib in undernourished patients as compared with norm-nourished ones. 7. Volume of distribution and bioavailability parameters for gefitinib are increased 30 and 50%, respectively, in protein-energy undernourishment status. This preclinical results yield simulation outcomes, which indicate that minimum trough concentration and area under the concentration-time curve in undernourished patients are expected to be 50% higher when compared to norm-nourished patients. 8. The response of the organism to compensate the deficiencies generated by an inadequate energy and protein intake is very complex. Consequently, general pharmacokinetic changes in undernourishment status are very variable, difficult to predict and dependent on the evaluated drug, given that all LADME processes are sensitive to these alterations. es_ES
dc.format.extent 258 p. es_ES
dc.language.iso en es_ES
dc.subject Undernutrition es_ES
dc.subject Erlotinib es_ES
dc.subject Gefitinib es_ES
dc.subject Pharmacokinetics es_ES
dc.title Impact of Undernourishment on the Pharmacokinetics of Erlotinib and Gefitinib in Rats es_ES
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis es_ES
dc.subject.unesco UNESCO::CIENCIAS MÉDICAS ::Ciencias de la Nutrición ::Deficiencias alimentarias es_ES
dc.description.abstractenglish The relationship between nutritional status and pharmacokinetics has been previously studied for classical anticancer drugs, but this relationship remains unexplored for modern therapies involving targeted drugs and new administration routes. In this context, the main objective of this thesis was to evaluate, in undernourished and well-nourished Wistar rats, the impact of undernourishment on the pharmacokinetics of erlotinib and gefitinib, two novel orally administered targeted-drugs. The research investigation was divided into three main experiments: • Evaluation of analytical and molecular alterations associated with undernourishment • In situ intestinal perfusion studies • In vivo pharmacokinetics studies This Doctoral Thesis yielded the following conclusions: 1. Undernourishment causes significant alterations on mRNA expression levels of intestinal and hepatic metabolic enzymes (Cyp1A1, Cyp1A2 and UDP) and transporter proteins (OATP, MRP2 and P-gp). In liver tissue, mRNA levels of all the quantified metabolic enzymes, except for cytochromes, were diminished in undernourishment status. On the other side, alterations of mRNA levels in intestinal tissue do not follow a particular trend and the final outcome is dependent on the assayed intestinal segment and on the evaluated enzyme. 2. The observed alterations in alanine-aminotransferase and aspartate-aminotransferase hepatic enzymes, along with the reduction of albumin plasmatic concentration, confirm the occurrence of hepatic damage as a result of undernourishment status. Likewise, the decreased count of blood cells corroborates bone-marrow dysfunction under protein-energy under-nutrition. 3. A passive diffusion uptake process and an active secretion process control erlotinib intestinal absorption through both of the assayed intestinal segments. This active secretion process is sensitive to nutritional status and to the presence of levofloxacin. 4. A passive diffusion uptake process governs gefitinib intestinal absorption, which proved not to be influenced by the addition of sodium azide to the perfusion solution. Furthermore, under this in situ assay conditions, alterations of gefitinib absorption process did not take place as a consequence of the nutritional status of rats. 5. A two-compartment model proved to describe best the pharmacokinetic profiles both for erlotinib and gefitinib. 6. A 5% decrease in erlotinib clearance takes place in undernourishment status. Drug bioavailability in magnitude (f) and rate (ka) are dependent on nutritional status and on the type of dispersion system employed for oral administration: • Bioavailability in magnitude is incomplete only when erlotinib suspension is administered to norm-nourished rats. • Absorption rate constant is 52% lower when erlotinib solution is administered in undernourished rats as compared to the administration in norm-nourished rats. These results yield an expected 20% higher area under the concentration-time curve for erlotinib in undernourished patients as compared with norm-nourished ones. 7. Volume of distribution and bioavailability parameters for gefitinib are increased 30 and 50%, respectively, in protein-energy undernourishment status. This preclinical results yield simulation outcomes, which indicate that minimum trough concentration and area under the concentration-time curve in undernourished patients are expected to be 50% higher when compared to norm-nourished patients. 8. The response of the organism to compensate the deficiencies generated by an inadequate energy and protein intake is very complex. Consequently, general pharmacokinetic changes in undernourishment status are very variable, difficult to predict and dependent on the evaluated drug, given that all LADME processes are sensitive to these alterations. es_ES
dc.embargo.terms 0 days es_ES

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