The implication of subcortical motor centers in voluntary human activities
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The implication of subcortical motor centers in voluntary human activities

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The implication of subcortical motor centers in voluntary human activities

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dc.contributor.advisor Valls Solé, Josep es_ES
dc.contributor.advisor Pablos Abella, Carlos es_ES
dc.contributor.advisor Castellote Olivito, Juan Manuel es_ES
dc.contributor.author Queralt Blasco, Ana es_ES
dc.contributor.other Universitat de València. Departament d'Educació Física i Esportiva es_ES
dc.date.accessioned 2012-04-02T15:42:01Z
dc.date.available 2012-04-02T15:42:01Z
dc.date.issued 2009 es_ES
dc.date.submitted 2009-07-20 es_ES
dc.identifier.isbn 9788437077031 es_ES
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10803/9722 es_ES
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10550/23339
dc.description.abstract The main objective of the present dissertation was to analyse the subcortical implications in the preparation and execution of complex voluntary movements. Three different tasks were selected on purpose. They all are everyday activities which although functionally related have differential characteristics. The first task was the sit-to-stand manoeuvre. Simple ballistic movements are executed faster in reaction time task paradigms when the imperative signal is accompanied by a startling auditory stimulus (SAS). We examined whether this effect also occurs in complex movements such as the sit-to-stand manoeuvre, taking into account both anticipatory postural adjustments and prime movers. Reaction time was significantly shortened when SAS was applied at an interval of 0 ms with respect to the imperative signal. The onset latency of EMG bursts recorded from tibialis anterior, lumbar paraspinal, quadriceps and biceps femoris muscles reduced proportionally to the shortening of take-off. However, these effects were not observed if SAS was delivered 150 ms after the imperative signal, when the manoeuvre had already started. Our results suggest that stimuli acting on subcortical motor structures speed-up but do not otherwise interfere with the execution of the motor programs. The second task was gait initiation followed by gait-pattern. Human gait involves a repetitive leg motor pattern that emerges after gait initiation. While the automatic maintenance of the gait-pattern may be under the control of subcortical motor centres, gait initiation requires the voluntary launching of a different motor program. We sought to examine how the two motor programmes respond to an experimental manipulation of the timing of gait initiation. Subjects were instructed to start walking as soon as possible at the perception of an imperative signal that, in some interspersed trials, was accompanied by a SAS. We recorded the gait phases and the EMG activity of four muscles from the leg that initiates gait. In trials with SAS, latency of all gait initiation-related events showed a significant shortening and the bursts of EMG activity had higher amplitude and shorter duration than in trials without SAS. The events related to gait-pattern were also advanced but otherwise unchanged. The fact that all the effects of SAS were limited to gait initiation suggests that startle selectively can affect the neural structures involved in gait initiation. Additionally, the proportional advancement of the gait-pattern sequence to the end of gait initiation supports the view that gait initiation may actually trigger the inputs necessary for generating the gait-pattern sequence. The third task was obstacle avoidance during walking. We hypothesized that inducing a StartReact effect may be beneficial in obstacle avoidance under time pressure, when subjects have to perform fast gait adjustments. Subjects walked on a treadmill and obstacles were released in specific moments of the step cycle. On average the EMG onset latency in the biceps femoris shortened by 20 % while amplitude increased by 50 %, in trials in which an auditory startle accompanied obstacle avoidance. The presentation of a startle increased the probability of using a long step strategy, enlarged stride length modifications and resulted in higher success rates, to avoid the obstacle. We also examined the effects of the startle in a condition in which the obstacle was not present in comparison to a condition in which the obstacle was visibly present but it did not fall. In the latter condition, the obstacle avoidance reaction occurred with a similar latency but smaller amplitude as in trials in which the obstacle was actually released. Our results suggest that the motor programmes used for obstacle avoidance are likely stored at subcortical structures. The release of these motor programmes by a SAS may combine intersensory facilitation and the StartReact effect. es_ES
dc.description.abstract El objetivo general de la presente tesis doctoral fue analizar las implicaciones subcorticales en la preparación y ejecución de movimientos voluntarios complejos. Se seleccionaron intencionadamente tres tareas. Las tres son actividades de la vida diaria relacionadas entre sí a nivel funcional pero con características diferenciales únicas. La primera tarea fue el paso de sedestación a bipedestación, como una actividad de tiempo de reacción simple para analizar los ajustes posturales anticipatorios y la coordinación muscular. Los resultados de este estudio sugieren que un estímulo auditivo de alta intensidad, que actúa a nivel de las estructuras motoras subcorticales, anticipa, aunque no interfiere, la ejecución de los programas motores. La segunda tarea fue el inicio de la marcha seguido del patrón de locomoción, como una actividad compleja para añadir el análisis de un patrón motor precedido de otro. El hecho de que todos los efectos del estímulo auditivo de alta intensidad estuvieran vinculados al inicio de la marcha sugiere que dicho estímulo subcortical puede afectar de forma selectiva a las estructuras implicadas en el inicio de la marcha. Además, la anticipación proporcional de la secuencia del patrón de locomoción, respecto a la finalización del inicio de la marcha, refuerza la idea de que el inicio de la marcha pueda ser el estímulo de entrada (input) necesario para la generación del patrón de locomoción humana. Finalmente, la tercera tarea fue la evitación de obstáculos durante la marcha para analizar las respuestas electivas en una situación dinámica. Los resultados de este estudio sugieren que los programas motores utilizados para la evitación de obstáculos son susceptibles de estar preparados en estructuras subcorticales. Es posible que la liberación de estos programas motores, debido al estímulo auditivo de alta intensidad, combine la facilitación intersensorial y el efecto StartReact. La principal aportación de la presente tesis es el hecho de que las actividades humanas voluntarias pueden ser provocadas a través de la estimulación subcortical. Las estructuras subcorticales están altamente implicadas en la programación previa y en la ejecución de movimientos complejos voluntarios. es_ES
dc.language eng es_ES
dc.subject F. Ciències de l'Activitat Física i Sport es_ES
dc.subject Diversions. Espectacles. Cinema. Teatre. Dansa. Jocs. Esports es_ES
dc.title The implication of subcortical motor centers in voluntary human activities es_ES
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis es_ES
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion es_ES

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